CIE AS Level English Language

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What are the five areas that you must look at in the passage when making the plan for your commentary?
Writer's purpose, audience, tone, vocabulary, figures of speech and structure
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What is a simile?
When a writer says that two things are like each other because of at least one similarity between them. They are always structures: as ......as, or like ..........
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What is a metaphor?
When a writer says that one thing IS another because of a similarity between them or describes something that cannot be true in real life but influences the writing in an imaginative way.
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What is personification?
When something that is not human is given human characteristics because of a similarity between the thing and a person.
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What is onomatopoeia?
When the word clearly suggests its own meaning; e.g. BANG!
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What is alliteration?
A figure of speech in which words beginning with the same letter are placed close together to achieve a particular effect
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What is contrast?
A figure of speech in which ideas which contrast or seem to be the opposite of each other are placed in close proximity to achieve a particular effect
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What is an oxymoron?
A figure of speech where two ideas that seem to be directly opposed are placed in close proximity, which, one closer inspection, actually makes sense
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What is hyperbole or exaggeration?
When a writer draws attention to a particular idea by saying something that cannot possibly be true. Stepping beyond the meaning to achieve the desired effect
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What is a rhetorical question?
When a writer asks a question to which the answer is so obvious that the question is unneccesary or asks a question to which there is no real answer
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What is a pun?
A play on words. Using a word which might have two or more meanings in order to make a joke or be ambiguous
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What is a euphemism?
Seeking to put a pleasant spin on something unpleasant
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What is irony?
When there is discrepancy between what is literaly said and what is really meant, or a contrast between what the reader expects and what is actually given
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What is an idiom?
The use of a word or expression which is particular to a language which would not make sense if it was directly translated into another language. Usually has a informal tone. Not actually a figure of speech.
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9 Questions you should ask yourself before you start writing ......
1. What genre will I write in? ... 2. Am I clear about the purpose of my writing and about my audience? ... 3. Can I use language effectively to suit my purpose and be appropriate for my audience? ...
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9 Questions you should ask yourself before you start writing ...... continued
4. What tone does the writer use and can I achieve this tone in my vocabulary and sentence structure? ...5. What kind of vocabulary is used and with what effect? ...
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9 Questions you should ask yourself before you start writing ...... continued #2
6. Does the writer use particular figures of speech, and, if so, which ones, and with what effect? ... 7. Can I copy the language features used by the writer? ...
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9 Questions you should ask yourself before you start writing ...... continued #3
8. Does the writer use particular part of speech often, and, if so, which one and why? ... 9. What kind of sentence structure does the writer use, and why?
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Genre in Narrative Writing
Have a firm idea of the genre you are writing in and the hallmarks of the genre in terms of character, setting and plot.
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Characters in Narrative Writing
Think about what type of characters fit your selected genre and pick the one(s) you want to make central in your writing. Don't clutter your writing with too many characters; only one or two and trace their development or relationship.
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MAJOR TIP I NEED TO REMEMBER
A short story or narrative is not a mini-novel with many characters whose lives are interwoven!
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Character Descriptions in Narrative Writing
Only include descriptions that are necessary in your piece of writing. Don't pad out your writing with useless twaddle because you'll go over the word limit and you won't impress the examiners at all.
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Plot in Narrative Writing
Keep the plot simple. Word limit = 600-900 words so don't try and condense a mini-novel into 700 words because if will be an unsatisfactory piece of work. A single, simple event that throws light on, develops or changes the main character(s).
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MAJOR TIP I NEED TO REMEMBER #2
You are the writer so you have to be in control of the plot and not let the plot get out of control so that it seems to be controlling you.
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MAJOR TIP I NEED TO REMEMBER #3
It's not enough to wait for the plot to take care of itself as you write because it won't!
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Conflict in Narrative Writing
Doesn't have to feature. Could be between two main characters. Could have already been there before narrative starts, may not be resolved at the end. Could have a clear hero and villain.
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Setting in Narrative Writing
Picture setting in your mind and think of aspects of it that will enhance your writing. Setting is both place and time. Setting may be suggested by genre.
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Setting in Narrative Writing #2
Effective if you insert small, helpful details of the setting into your story to help the plot along, or to build up appropriate mood or to develop character.
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Endings in Narrative Writing
You may not be asked to write an ending. You HAVE to plan your ending because it won't just fall into place.
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Twists in Narrative Writing
Reader startled by unexpectedness of the final section of the plot. Lay down clues throughout the story so that the reader is still surprised at the ending but realises at hindsight that the story was headed in that direction all along.
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Twists in Narrative Writing #2
A twist must NEVER be just an add-on because you will look like you just wanted to add something effective and it won't work.
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Cliffhangers in Narrative Writing
Reader left in suspense as to how the story might end. Left to draw his/her own conclusions as to how it ends.
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Ambiguity in Narrative Writing
Reader unsure of the writers plan for the character(s). Given and ending but doesn't really know where the writer in going so is left curious.
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Ambiguity in Narrative Writing #2
In a story with a good ambiguous ending the reader may be certain one day that one thing happened but then be equally certain another day that something else happened. Very effective if handled with skill.
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1st Key to Effective Use of Dialogue
Use it sparingly and only to enhance the plot or character(s)
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2nd Key to Effective Use of Dialogue
Use it in the appropriate place. Starting a story with a short section of dialogue can be very effective in establishing character, setting or plot or a combination of the three.
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3rd Key to Effective Use of Dialogue
Punctuate it correctly. Remember to use quotation marks around the words actually spoken and to start a new line for each new speaker.
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Sequence in Narrative Writing
Can be chronological but that is quite obvious. You could start at the end and have the story as a flashback. Start when two characters meet unexpectedly after events of plot have unravelled, or have character reminisce about everything that happened
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Sequence in Narrative Writing #2
You could start in the middle of your story. Could be conflict in the middle of the story that takes the rest of the narrative to resolve. Gives narrative an interesting and dramatic focus and adds something unexpected to its structure.
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Openings in Narrative Writing
Although it is what you write first don't think about it or plan it first. If you know your plot and are confident with it and your ending the opening should come easily.
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MAJOR TIP I NEED TO REMEMBER
Openings should be eye-catching! Draw the reader in and never EVER write an opening that would bore or repel the reader because they will keep this attitude for the rest of the story.
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Openings in Narrative Writing #2
Short section of dialogue at the beginning. One-word openings. Non-sentence openings. Very short sentence openings. Opening with a flashback. Rhetorical question. Non-rhetorical question to get the reader thinking.
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Person in Narrative Writing
Third Person: Writer, not a character or involved in the story, tells it kinda like a narrator. Use pronouns he, she, they etc.
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Person in Narrative Writing #2
First person: Writer tells the story through the eyes and from the point of view of one of the characters (usually the main one). Use the pronoun I.
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Advantages and Disadvantages of Writing in the First Person
Advantage - Easier to identify with the character for the reader. Empathises with his/her emotions. Disadvantage - limited perspective on events of the plot and nature of other characters because focus is on the character telling the story.
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Questions for Descriptive on People
1.What build or stature was he/she ... 2. What kind of things did he/she often say to you? ... 3. What kind of voice did he/she have? ... 4. What kind of feelings did you have when you heard his/her voice? ... 5. What kind of clothes did he/she wear?
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Questions for Descriptive on People #2
5. What did he/she wear? ... 6. Can you describe a single favourite or typical outfit he/she wore? ... 7. Are there any special smells associated with him/her? ... 8. What are the most memorable activities you associate with him/her?
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Questions for Descriptive on Places
1. What place is it? ... 2. What kind of person spends a lot of time there? ... 3. What does the place say about the personalities of those people? ... 4. What colours do you associate with the place? ... 5. What feelings does the place evoke in you?
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Selected Detail in Descriptive Writing
Before beginning to write link the topic for description to the tone or mood you want to create. Tone or mood may be specified in the question or you may need to decide for yourself or look at genre
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Selected Detail in Descriptive Writing #2
Once you have established the tone and mood select details to be included in the writing and jot them down
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Word Banks
Jot down a group of words linked around and evocative of a particular tone, mood or topic
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Letters
Pay attention to punctuation and tone determined by the type of letter you are asked to write and the recipient - formal or informal.
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Letters #2
Punctuation: Address of sender, date, salutation and name of recipient, farewell, name of sender and address of recipient (only in formal letters)
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Diaries
Very personal. To record innermost thoughts, reflections and experiences. Pay attention to content and tone. Do you want to develop character? Trace plot? Show how plot revolves around character(s)?
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Script
Pay attention to plot, character, setting, theme & layout. No rambling. Jot down what you want to achieve. Write a small character study of each character. Brief outline of plot. Describe setting
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Script
Layout: Name of character in capital letters in the margin with a colon. Stage directions showing the way in which the character speaks or helping reader understand plot are written in brackets. Always in the present tense
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Newspaper or Magazine Article
Pay attention to tone and layout. Differently depending on who you are (i.e. jouranlist, student etc). Think of audience (will establish whether formal or informal). Can you identify with the audience?
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Newspaper or Magazine Article #2
Layout: Don't have to write in columns. Headline - alliteration or pun - Eye Catching! Sub-headings to divide article. Events in order of importance. Interviews with witnesses and relevant people. Speech marks but no new line for new speaker.
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Biography & Autobiography
Writing about the life of someone or your own life. Pay attention to tone and content. Include personal details of character or yourself. Events not known to many. Anecdotes to create confidential tone
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Speech
Pay attention to tone and delivery. If speech is about personal experience draw from stuff about biography. Need to make words rise from the paper as if they were being spoken. Humorous? Serious? Sarcastic?
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Speech #2
Show the way you would deliver the speech in the way you write it. Introduction (e.g. ladies and gentlemen). Audience will be determined by the nature of the task. Use expressions particular to speech. Use signposts like "I put it to you" etc.
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Speech #3
Engage reader by using the first person plural. Rhetorical questions. Finish on a high, persuasive note appropriate to the task set.
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Discursive Writing
Give evidence to support your argument. Statistics, comparisons etc. Link each line of argument coherently. Put the points in order. Important to link points for and against to show when writing is moving direction.
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Argumentative Writing
Many points for discursive apply. Establish area of need. Evidence to support your argument. Make a list of points. Be respectful depending on audience. Emphatic language depending on audience. Show personality.
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Argumentative Writing #2
Comical persuasion and dry sense of humour are effective. Use some figures of speech.
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Introductions and Conclusions
Short paragraphs. Less scope for eye-catching opening. Nevertheless must be interesting. Conclusion must show that all your points have been rounded off. Gives opportunity to share your thoughts and feelings on the matter. Final appeal to the reader.
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VERY BAD INTRODUCTION EXAMPLE
NEVER, EVER start with "I have been asked to write a discursive essay about ... "
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

When a writer says that two things are like each other because of at least one similarity between them. They are always structures: as ......as, or like ..........

Back

What is a simile?

Card 3

Front

When a writer says that one thing IS another because of a similarity between them or describes something that cannot be true in real life but influences the writing in an imaginative way.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

When something that is not human is given human characteristics because of a similarity between the thing and a person.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

When the word clearly suggests its own meaning; e.g. BANG!

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

TrixieDawn

This is AMAZING!!! This has really helped me with my exam prep!! Thanks heaps!! :D

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