Churchill Key Idea 3

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  • Created on: 04-01-15 17:33
When does World War Two start?
September 1939
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What is Churchill appointed as at this time?
First Lord of Admirality
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Although war starts, does anything happen?
No, the Phoney war begins where nothing happens,
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What does Norway declare itself but why is it in a vital position?
It declares itself neutral but Germany plans to invade,
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what does Britain plan to do and what is Churchill's idea?
She plans to stop it, -Churchill wants to mine Norway's water to force the German ships into the North sea where the Royal Navy would sink them,
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However what would British interference make more likely?
-Result in German occupation of Norway, -Makes German occupation of Denmark more likely,
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Was this action popular in Britain? However, what soon made it unpopular?
Yes, -German action hastens against Norway and it is soon captured,
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Who was blamed? What was Churchills excuse?
-Chamberlain, -He said he hadnt had enough free hand in the misson so couldnt besr responsibility,
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What policy of Chamberlains also failed?
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In parliament, which party refuses to continue to support Chamberlain so what is he forced to do and when?
-Labour,-He resigns in May 1940
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Who was King George's first choice and what was his current position?
-Lord Halifax, -Foreign Secretary who sits in the House of Lords
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What is his answer and why?
He refuses as he sits in the House of Lords,
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Why is Churchill not King George's first choice?
As he disliked Churchill due to his interference in Edward VIII's abdication,
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When else was Churchill second choice for who and what position?
In May 1924, for Chancellor of the Exchequer, -Chamberlain was first choice,
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gWhy does the Phoney War end?
Due to the invasion of Western Europe by the Nazis and the fall of France,
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Why is Britain isolated?
-France has surrendered, -USSR isnt interested, -USA is in a policy of isolationism,
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When is Churchill appointed PM?
In May 1940
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Why should Churchill be elected based on experience?
He fought in India and the Boer War. He was first Lord of Admirality, in Shadow Cabinet and the Cabinet, -Secretary of State for War and Air,-Colonial Secretary, -Home Securitary,
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What are the other reasons why Churchill should become PM? (6)
-Has a strong personality, -Charasmatic, -Intelligent, -Journalism skills, -Communication skills, -Orator
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However, why should Churchill not be appointed b'ased on experiences?
-Gallipoli which was a major failure in WW1 and Norway,
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What are the other reasons why Churchill should not become PM? (6)
-Risk taker, -His attitude towards democracy, -Rude and racist, -Aggressive, -A war mongerer, -Obsessive,
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What 4 quotes by Churchill show his stance in 1940?
-"Never Surrender" -"Victory at all costs" -"I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat." -"We will fight them on the beaches"
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Was he up for negotiating?
Not with Hitler, -He considered for Mussolini,
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What were some of his famous/iconic symbols? (3)
-V for Victory, -Top hat and Cigar, -Staying in London as the Battle of Britain begins,
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What are four advantages on his style of leadership?
-He is hardworking, -very long hours, -Gets personally involved in decisions, -decisive,
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However what are six disadvantages of his style of leadership?
-Puts strains on staff, -Wouldnt delegate decisions, -wouldnt listen to advisors, -unwilling t o compromise, -Narrow minded, -unapologetic,
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What did his wife warn about his style of leadership?
She warned him of his attitude to others around him e.g. his rudeness and demands to his staff,
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Who were his six generals?
-Gort, -Dill, -Wavell, -Auchinleck -Montgomery, -Brooke
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Who was Gort other than a General? and where was he acting?
British Commander at Dunkirk,
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What did Churchill order Gort to do?
Stay and fight as Dunkirk
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What did Gort do instead and was it a success?
He had his own initiative and evacuated troops from Dunkirk, yes it was a success,
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How many were evacuated?
over 300,000 men
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How did the French view this?
they respected his intiative to evacuate troops.
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What position was General Dill and when?
Chief of Imperial General 1940-1941
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What did he think thr army needed to do?
to be built up larger and trained,
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How did Churchill view him and why?
He was infuriated with Dill as he saw the defence of the wholw empire as his respomsibilty,
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What did Churchill call him?
Dilly Dally
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Where was Wavell stationed?
In North Africa.
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What was he told to create there?
A middle east command to protect the Suez Canal and British oil fuels.
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How did he try and accomplish this?
He launched a counter attack against the Italians and drove them back 500 miles,
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Why did Churchill dislike him?
As he was too cautious
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However, what was he appointed to in India and again in 1943?
-Commander in Cheif, -Field Marshall
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When was Auchinleck appointed Commander in Chief?
July 1941
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Where was he able to take all of by the end of 1941?
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How did Churchill view him and why?
As too cautious and wasnt a good leader as he clashes with RAF leaders.
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However, why could Churchill be wrong?
He has no experinece of modern desert welfare,
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Where did he beat Rommel and when?
At the Battle of El Alamein in 1942,
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What did he create with Churchill against what?
They created a New Offensive against the crisis of Libya
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What did Churchill have him appointed to and how?
To Field Marshall by compensation.
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What position was Brooke?
Chief of Imperial General Staff
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What did he set up which Churchill didnt recognise?
the Burma Campaign,
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What did Brooke want to set up where but why didnt he?
He wanted to set up a Naval Base in Singapore but Churchill didnt and refused to let him,
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What was the consequences of this?
In January 1942 Japan successfully invaded,
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What was Churchill and Brookes relationship like?
It was stromy and they rarely agreed on things.
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Why did Churchill not get rid of him?
As he was one of te best strategists and wartime leaders,
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How did Brooke view Churchill?
He was annoyed Churchill was seen as a great strategist but had great respect for him,
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What were Britains two strategic decisions for the Mediterranean?
1)Invade through Italy, 2)invade through France
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What are three reasons to imvade Italy based on why they shouldnt invade through France?
-If failed, ot would invite invasion of Britain, -would result in horrifoc losses based on the blood bath of WW1, -French coast is fortified ready for invasion,
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What is another reason why the invasion of Italy ahould occur?
As fhe army is weak.
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Which option does Churchill favour and why?
Italy as he described it as 'The Soft Underbelly of Europe.'
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Which option does France and Russia favour and why?
The French optiom as they want a second front to remove the Germsn troops from Russia,
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Which option does Britain use and when does it occur?
The Italian option is used in 1943.
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However, what happens and who is blamed?
German reinforcements keep the Allies in Italy and Churchill is blamed to an extent,
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When is the French option tried and what are other names for this invasion?
-June 1944, -Invasion of Normandy, -D-day, -Operation Overlord,
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Based on these two in invasions, why could it be argued Churchill doesnt deserve his reputation as a Great war time PM?
As he could have invaded France earlier and, in theory, reduced the impsct of the war and the Holocaust,
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However, based on these two events, why could this be argued against?
-He was waiting for thr right time as D-Day wasnt a bloodbath, -Italy imvasiom moved German troops from France,
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When does the Battle of Britain occur and between who?
August/September 1940 and beyond between the RAF and the Luftwaffe,
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Was Churchill right to encourage the growth of the RAF?
Yes but he did overestimate the Luftwaffe
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What was Germany's aim?
To destroy the war effort im Britain- comminications, air bases, factories, cities and homes to destroy morale
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Give two examples of places targeted?
-Liverpool, -Coventry
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How many were killed in Britain?
tens of thousands,
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What was less likely for the Germans to implement after the bombings between them?
-Operation Sealion or thr invasion of Britain,
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What was Britain's target in the bombing of Germany?
To destroy cities snd kill as many people as possilbe to lower morale
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What was the advantage of Britain's bombings other than lowered morale?
It reduced focus on Britain so German fighters are used instead to stop British bombers,
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Who was in charge?
Sir Arthur 'Bomber' Harris
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When was Dresden bombed and why?
February 1945 as it had a large population, industry and showed the Russians how powerful she and America were,
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What did Britai fear of thr Russians?
That rhey would carry on their invasion across Europe as they cant be trusted as they are Communists,
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How many nights of nombing was there and how many dead? Why is the number uncertain?
3 nights of bombing, -Between 35,000-135,000, As Dresden was filled with refugees escaping Russian troops
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What was created that also made losses difficult to count?
A fire storm
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Why could this 'war crime' be justified?
As fhey were trying to end the war earlier,
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Were death camps targeted and why?
No as they were full of prisoners
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After the war, what did many of prisoners of war say should hsve hsppened?
They should havs been bombed to stop the torture and cruelty
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What month was the 1945 elections?
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What was the result?
Labour won by a landslide as compared to the Conservatives,
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Who run the Government before the elections and why?
There was a National Government where all parties work together in a time of crisis,
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When was the first National Government and why?
1931 due to the Great Depression
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WHo was Churchill's deputy Prime Minister and who was he?
Attlee- Leader of the Labout Party
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In 1944, what two acts did he introduce/influence?
-Town and Country Planning Act, -Butler's Education Act,
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What did the 1944 Town and Country Planning Act do?
It meant the compulsory purchasing of bomb damaged areas,
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However, who took credit for this act?
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What did Churchill introduce to the Butler's Education Act that was positive?
-Increases leaving age to 15, -Make RE compulsory
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However, what was one disadvantage he introduced into the Butler Education Act and who was in unpopular with?
-He ensured women, especially teachers, were paid less, -Unpopular with those who favoured equality,
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Explain why people are weary of Churchill and the policies he may say he will introduce based on WW1?
David Lloyd George promised 'Homes fit for heroes', but he never fulfilled his promise,
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When was the Beveridge Report introduced and by who?
1942 by William Beveridge,
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What did this Report argue and suggest to solve this?
-It argued poverty could be abolished if they could extend social insurance scheme. He recommened child allowances, an NHS, welfare reforms and social security
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Who was in support?
There was a large agreement amongst parties that were in favour of implementing the report,
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What was Churchill's reaction?
Churchill believed it was too costly so should be implemented after the war and not during the war,
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How did he prevent possible change going ahead?
He appointed Conservatives into positions such as the Minister of Health and Minister of Town and Country Planning to ensure nothing would be implemented during the war,
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However, why would it not be possible to implement this report after the war?
As they were in great debt after the war so wouldnt be able to afford it.
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How many other MPs voted against implementing the scheme now?
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What was Curchill's post war priority?
Fear of Communisms in Europe so wanted to launch Operation Unthinkable
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What was Operation Unthinkable and why wasnt it used?
It was to move the Russians back over to Russia to stop them taking over other countries in Europe, -It would start WW3,
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Why is the reputation of Communism increased?
Due to Russians hand in WW2 where they fought off the Germans for many years,
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Why does this help Labour?
As it supports many of their policies like the nationalisation of industry and intervention for the economy,
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Why did the USA make an impact of churchill's reputation and a quote?
They were stationed in Britain but resentment was caused with their activities- 'Overpaid, oversexed, over here'
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is Churchill appointed as at this time?


First Lord of Admirality

Card 3


Although war starts, does anything happen?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What does Norway declare itself but why is it in a vital position?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


what does Britain plan to do and what is Churchill's idea?


Preview of the front of card 5
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