China and the Soviet Union 1949-1957

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What does Kirby state about the relationship between the PRC and Russia?
"The PRC became Moscow's most faithful and self-sacrificing ally"
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What forms did the Soviet assistance did China have?
Technical education, capital, ideologies and financial resources
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What was the increase in industrial production between 1952 and 1957?
Industrial production expanded 17% annually
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How was technical and educational assistance implemented?
Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assitance 1949 and the First Five Year Plan 1953
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According to Kirby how many Soviet advisors migrated to China in this period?
6-10000 for a period of two years
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How many Chinese students studied in the USSR in this period? (Naughton)
10000
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Why was Soviet technical/educational assistance beneficial to China?
China had to bare the ordinary costs (wages/accomodation) but there was a substantial aid component to the aid. Kirby defends that the assistance was given on better terms than it could have be found from any other source
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What sector of the economy did the technical and educational assistance benefit?
Predominately heavy industry sector
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What does Kirby quote about Soviet assistance before 1953?
"By 1949 a shadow of Soviet Model state-led industrialisation was already evident in Chinese industrial policy"
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Where and what were industrial projects concentrated on?
Northeastern regions of China and Manchuria - focused on heavy industry and infrastructure
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What does Sheng argue that Soviet assistance was?
Alliance of 1950 was "purely a logical extension of the history of CCP-Moscow relations in the decades prior to the proclamation of the PRC in 1949"
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How many construction agreements were made in the 1950s? How much of China's imports did these account for?
291 construction agreements, 45% of China's imports
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What types of goods did China export?
Foodstuffs, raw machinery and consumer goods
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What was China's trade position in the 1950s?
Allowed China to run a trade deficit with USSR 1950-55 but later a trade surplus in the second half of the decade
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What does Kirby quote about ideological factors impacting the economy?
"If the politics were in alignment, the economics would take care of itself"
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What was the Soviet Unions ideological role?
SU became a role model for China and its economic and political policies were mirrored in the PRC
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Where did the commitment of China to follow Stalinist policies stem from?
Mao's devotion to the core economic doctrines expressed in the Short Course (Moscow 1937), alliance during WW2 and similar party ideals of the PRC and CPSU
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Name an example of China learning from Soviet Union mistakes
Socialisation of agriculture led to Chinese using joint state and private led enterprises which meant government was able to revive industry quickly
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What was the main assistance given by the Soviet Union?
Without Soviet framework and ideologies, China would not have developed into the command economy for which this era is famed
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Name the three arguments for limited assistance
China's economy was not inherently dormant, it could get assistance from other countries and had the potential to grow. 2) Transformation of Chinese economy due to the changes in administrative structures & 3) Russia operated under different demograp
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What does Kaple argue about Chinese economic transformation?
There was potential to grown a modern economy as there was growth between 1949 and 1953 when direct soviet assistance was minimal
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What did the Chinese government achieve between 1949-52?
1949 China had devastated war economy with hyperinflation but by 1952 government had controlled inflation, achieved economic growth and implemented a new institutional framework
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What was the increase in investment and redistribution of arable land between 1950 and 192? (Korean war)
26% and 42%
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What was China's trading position during the 20th century?
Ever greater participant in international trade with a network stretching from Korea to Indonesia, Syria to Japan
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In the 1950s under strict soviet conditions, what did China use for trade?
Hong Kong as an entreport for European exchange
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How was China's trade with the West impeded?
Korean war - UN embargo on trade
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What does Naughton describe because of China's attempt to duplicate soviet models in different demographics?
"Reckless advance"
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What were the adverse consequences of the reckless advance?
1956 Hundred Flowers Movement (demands for higher rural living standards)
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Why did China and Russia operate under different resource endowment starting points?
USSR initiated First FYP following 7 year period of gradual recovery and a revolutionary period, CCP tried to initiate it only three years after they established power (not at same level as SU in 1928)
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What were the geographical differents of the CCP and USSR?
China was labour abudant and land scarce whereas USSR was land rich
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What forms did the Soviet assistance did China have?

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Technical education, capital, ideologies and financial resources

Card 3

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What was the increase in industrial production between 1952 and 1957?

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Card 4

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How was technical and educational assistance implemented?

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Card 5

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According to Kirby how many Soviet advisors migrated to China in this period?

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