China

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What dynasties will be considered in the origins of Chinese civilisation?
Xia, Shang, Zhou
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What can be considered when dealing with who is Chinese and what is China?
Geography, language, ethnicity, confucianism, food
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When was the paleolithic era?
2.6 million to 10,000 years ago
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Where was Yuanmou Man found?
Yunnan
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What is the scientific name for Yuanmou Man?
Homo erectus yuanmouensis
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When did **** erectus yuanmouensis live?
1.7 million to 100,000 years ago
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Where was Lantian found?
Shaanxi
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What is the scientific name for Lantian?
**** erectus lantianensis
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When did Lantian live?
1 million to 100,000 years ago
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What was found of Yunnan?
Two teeth, alongside stone artefacts and animal bone
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What was found of Lantian?
Skull, jaw, teeth
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Where was Zhoukoudian found?
Beijing area
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What is a name for Zhoukoudian?
Homo erectus pekinensis
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When was Zhoukoudian living?
750,000 years ago
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What is known about Zhoukoudian?
Walked upright, lived in small communities, could communicate verbally, hunted and ate herbs and fruits
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Did Zhoukoudian know how to keep fire?
Yes but unsure if new how to create
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When did **** sapiens begin?
40,000 years ago
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What happens from the time of the last ice age?
Stone technology progresses rapidly, hunting becomes more important (rhino, ostrich, deer , donky)
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Where was Superior Cave Man found?
North China
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When did Superior Cave Man live?
11,000 to 10,000 years ago
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When was the neolithic era?
10,000 - 4,500/2000 BC
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What was the Neolithic revolution?
Growing vegetables, domestication, and farming
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What were the consequences of the neolthiic revolution for technology?
Rapid growth with stone artefacts, pottery and weaving
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What were the consequences of the neolithic revolution in terms of settling?
Sedentary (not nomad)
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What were the consequences of the neolithic revolution in terms of community?
Comlex systems of organisation and aggregation led to growth of communities
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When was the Xia dynasty?
2205-1751 BC (1994-1523)
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What was the pre-Xia mythology?
Pangu lived for 18,000 years, limbs create aspects of Earth, eyes moon and sun and the fleas on his back animals
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According to pre-xia mythology, what was the name of the goddess who created humans?
Nuwa
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Who founded the Xia dynasty?
Yu the great
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What was significant about Yu the Great?
He was known as the 'regulator of water'
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Who succeeded Yu the Great?
In hereditary rule, his son Qi
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How many rulers of Xia dynasty?
Seventeen
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When was the Shang dynasty?
1751-1122 (1523-1027) BC
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How many rulers in Shang dynasty?
Fourteen
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Was ruling Shang dynasty hereditary?
Yes though no mention of consorts
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Did Shang culture = Shang state?
No
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What is the proof for the existence of the Shang dynasty?
Oracle bones
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When was the Zhou dynasty?
1122-222 (1027-222) BC
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When was the Western Zhou?
1046-771
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When did the Zhou dynasty start?
When it ruled "China"
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What led to the downfall of the Zhou?
Cultural, political and econnomic integrations
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From what date are the dates for the Zhou dynasty accurate and traceable?
841BC onwards
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What are the historical sources for the Zhou dynasty?
Inscriptions on bones and bronze tripods explaining why made, rituals and institutions.
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When was the Eastern Zhou?
771-222BC
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What was the first period of the Eastern Zhou known as?
Springs and Autumns
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What was the second period of the Eastern Zhou known as?
Warring States Period
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When was the Springs and Autumns period?
771-476BC
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When was the Warring States period?
476 to 222 BC
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Where did the capital move during the Eastern Zhou period?
Luoyi
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Why did the capital move to Luoyi at a stage during the Eastern Zhou?
Quanrong population did not integrate
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What was the word for king?
Wang
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What was the significance of the king?
Highest religious, political and military authority
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What was the word for clan?
Xing
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What was the word for lineage?
Zu
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What did the king act as head of?
Clan and lineage
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What was the word for dominating clan?
Wangzu
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What did the wangzu do?
Direct contact with overworldly, which directly influenced life
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What was the succcesion of the Shang dynasty like?
Hereditary, full of rituals
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Under Shang succession what was the significance of the two generations?
All men of new generation within clan were "sons" of king, clan divided into two groups and groups alternated
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What would happen under Shang succession if no "sons" of new generation in opposite group to king to succeed?
Throne would pass to "brother" - any man of the other group of the same generation
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Was Shang succession blood related?
No
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What were the titles of the groups in Shang generations?
yi or ding
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Was Zhou dynastic succession similar to that of Shang?
Yes
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What was the corresponding Zhou word for ding?
zhao
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What was the corresponding Zhou word for yi?
mu
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What were the sections of oracle on oracle bones?
Preface - theme of divination - response - verification on divination
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What kinds of events would be recorded on oracle bones?
Battles, sacrificies, auspicious day, auspicious decade
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Why did bronze materials provide direct access to heaven?
Because was a material that could be moulded
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What was the name for Mandate of Heaven?
Tianming
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Did the Zhou keep the Mandate of Heaven?
Yes but for them Shangdi was a divine being
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What was Shangdi to the Shang?
Ancestor
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Why did the Zhou believe they received Mandate of Heaven?
As they had de
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What was 'de'?
Magic force
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What would 'de' now be seen as?
Virtue
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What happened to the significance of rituals under the Zhou?
Declined in importance
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Under the Shang how was state organised?
According to family line; some important family members or state officials had own city
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Under Zhou how was state organised?
Similar to Shang but more complex; still based on lineage but now central line which all important people descended from
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When leader of Zhou gave permission to a clan to have and run a city, giving part of his power to these lineages, what did they do in return?
Paid tribute to the king
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What is the issue with understanding agriculture during this early period?
Unsure about sophistication as tools appear the same as Neolithic but during oracle bones appear important
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What is proto-porcelain?
Pottery baked at lower than 1000C
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What is known about merchants?
Not much but know that there was import of turtles and jade
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Card 2

Front

What can be considered when dealing with who is Chinese and what is China?

Back

Geography, language, ethnicity, confucianism, food

Card 3

Front

When was the paleolithic era?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where was Yuanmou Man found?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the scientific name for Yuanmou Man?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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