China - The Cultural revolution

How did divisions in the party lead to Mao launching the cultural revolution?
Between Pragmatists and ideologists. End of GLF Mao retired to "second line", and Lui Shaoqui and Deng Xiaoping took over and applied a more pragmatic view upsetting Mao
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What was the quest for permanent revolution?
Mao believed that there needed to be an ongoing revolution to achieve a communist China. People's revolutionary commitment needed to be constantly tested.
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What were the attacks on Bureaucracy?
Mao believed that when Bureaucrats stopped working on revolution they would become the new ruling class (bourgeois). Cultural revolution to purge bureaucrats.
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Who were Mao's supporters ?
CCp divided over Mao's ideological outlook - Chen Boda, Kang Sheng, Jiang Qing and Lin Bao. All members of the Central Cultural Revolution Group (CCRG)
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Who were Mao's opponents?
Pragmatists within the party. Believed the GLF failed bc it was too radial and ambitious. Chen Yun and Bo Yibo believed that experts were needed to run the country. Cultural revolution was used to attack enemies
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Mao's hold on young people
In schools learned he was a great hero, wrote a Big Character Poster to "Bombard the Hadquaters" they obeyed. Relesed the "little red book" in 1964 to indoctinate the young ith Mao's best statements and rules a good communists should follow.
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The mass rallies of 1966
Mao and Boda invited many students to mass rallies. Went to capital to see Mao who filled them with revolutionary fever. Mao encouraged students to rebel and attack his enemies.
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Red guards attacks on the "four olds"
In 1966 he launched the "four olds" campaign using red guards to attack "old ideas", "old culture", "old customs" and "old habits".
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Growth of anarchy
Red guards got out of hand following the "four olds" campaign. Attacked figures of authority, committed awful crimes to show their loyalty to Mao. Red Guards from working class backgrounds fought against middle class red guards.
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The use of terror
In the "January Storm" of 191967, the Red guards took over he CCP and modelled gov based on Paris Commune 1871. Mao used PLA to close down the commune. Cracked down on radicals - "February Adverse Current"
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Why did young people join the Red Guards?
Offered opportunity. Free train tickets, gave young people who had been oppressed the chance to travel.
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Cultural detruction
Four olds attacked. Many artefacts destroyed. Confucian tradition destroyed.
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Who was Liu Shaopi?
Head of State. Helped rebuild China after GLP. Subject to struggle meetings. His wife denounced and he was later denounced. Labelled as a "renegade, scab, traitor". Died in Nov 1968 and buried in an unmarked grave.
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Who was Deng Xiaoping?
Deng helped Lui introduce economic policy without Mao's advice. Accused of tying to establish his own. Sent to a tractor factory. Son jumped out of a window and paralysed from the waist down, later returned to power by Mao who needed help with CR.
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Lin Biao and the role of the PLA
Mao's subservient follower. Helped create the little red book. Replaced Peng after Lushan. Made LRB compulsory for PLA soldiers. Mao relied on PLA to control Cultural Revolution
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Purging of CCP members
Up to 70-80% of the party cadres and 60-70% on the organs of central government had been purged. 14000 party cadres executed, 4 out of the 6 party 1st secretaries . Only 9 out of the 23 politburo survived. 2/3 of the central committee deposed
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The purging of "capitalist roaders" and foreigners living in China
"Capitalist Roaders" name given to anyone who criticised Mao's ideology. People's beliefs checked. Soviet staff who left the embassy and wanted to leave china were trapped in their cars. French trade counsellor confronted and denounced for hours.
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Restoration of order by the PLA
Mao used PLA to restore order. PL feared struggle order. PLA launched a wave of terror in support of the "Cleansing o class ranks". Upto 1.84 million people arrested.
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Up to the mountains and down to the villages campaign
18 million young guards sent to "cool off" in the countryside. Help them to understand manual labour and how peasants lived. In reality it helped Mao restore order. Sent to areas that could not organise violence. Peasants resente having to share food
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The Lin Biao affair
Mao believed that Lin was plotting to use the PLA to seize power. In 1971 he realised he had lost Mao's trust and fled to USSR, but his plane crashed and he died.
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Deng Xiaoping
Mao recalled Deng from exile. Deng was popular and experienced. Named Army chief of staff. By 1974 he had regained his post as CCP Secretary.
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Zhou Enlai
Not purged by Mao bc he was useful. Called for the introduction of "The Four Modernisations".
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Reining in the Gang of four
Clear Mao would die during the 70's. Lui and Lin named as successor but both dead. Gang of four feared that the pragmatists would take over. Lead the "anti-confucious" campaign. Gang of four unpopular.
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Death of Mao
Mao died in 1976. Hua took over as party leader. Used PLA to arrest gang of four. Helped transform china into a 21st century super power.
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Card 2


What was the quest for permanent revolution?


Mao believed that there needed to be an ongoing revolution to achieve a communist China. People's revolutionary commitment needed to be constantly tested.

Card 3


What were the attacks on Bureaucracy?


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Card 4


Who were Mao's supporters ?


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Card 5


Who were Mao's opponents?


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