China - Social Policy under Mao

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How many men and women were literate in the 1930s?
1% of females and 30% of men.
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What did the New Marriage Law of 1950 provide?
No more underage marriages; women were given property rights; no more arranged marriages without bride's consent; no more dowries; no more bride prices; a crackdown on foot-binding.
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What was the problem with the New Marriage Law?
The local party cadres sometimes refused to uphold the law because it made their lives difficult. It overturned peasant life with some 1.4 million divorce petitions being filed in 1953.
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How did Mao seek to tap into the Labour potential of women?
He had them work on communes, especially during the Great Leap Forward. He claimed women could gain liberation through work and the term Iron Women was introduced.
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What kinds of sexism did women face at this time?
Women could only earn 8 work points to a man's ten; women were forced to look after children and work in labour intensive jobs despite creches; 34 women were attacked by 2 Cadres in Guangzhou.
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What were conditions like in the communal creches?
Awful. 90% of children in a Beijing one became sick.
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What was the proportion of female Party Cadres in 1970-6?
16-21%
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What proportion of children received schooling?
45% of men and 2% of women.
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What was education based on in China?
Rote learning dominated, and education was based on Confucian ideals rather than maths and science.
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How many children were in primary schools between 1949 and 1957?
There was an increase from 26 million to 64 million. Man-pin schools were introduced - owned by the parents.
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How many Russians taught in China?
600.
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How did the govt. aid communication?
By introducing a system called Pinyin, which was Latin letters rather than the symbols, which were much harder to learn.
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How did the country turn away from traditional education during the Great Leap Forward?
Manual labour was introduced into the curriculum.
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How did the Cultural Revolution affect education?
Schools didn't open as Mao believed revolutionary experience was more important than schooling; 7 million books were destroyed; teachers were struggled against.
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Name two campaigns intended to improve healthcare.
The Patriotic Health Campaign aimed to improve healthcare during the Korean War by focusing on prevention rather than a cure. Barefoot doctors were introduced to help - they had six months of training, but helped increase life expectancy from 36-57.
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What proportion of the budget remained on healthcare?
2.6%
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What were the Four Olds?
Old customs, old culture, old habits and old ideas. It sought to destroy imperialism.
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Name two members of the Cultural Revolution Group.
Jiang Qing (Mao's wife) and Chen Boda (propaganda chief).
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What was Jiang Qing responsible for?
The Arts and Literature Group as Mao's 'cultural Tsarina.' She personally vetted plays. Only eight plays were allowed to be performed in China as a result.
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Give me some examples of accepted performances and the name of the joke that circulated as a result.
Red Detachment of Women and Taking Tiger Gorge by Strategy. The joke was: 800 million people watching 8 performances.
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What did Article 5 of the Common Programme promise?
Religious freedom - though this was not actually provided, as in the Soviet model.
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Why were the CCP opposed to Confucianism?
They believed that it was linked to the old imperial system. Ceremonies honouring Confucius, as well as the Qingming Festival, were banned.
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Examples of Confucius-based attacks.
The Confucius Temple in Shandong was attacked by 200 students and teachers at Beijing Normal University; Liu Shaoqi was accused of Confucianism; Lin Biao was also attacked under the name of Confucianism.
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What did the Religious Affairs Bureau do?
It aimed to force out Catholic and Christian foreign missionaries from China. For example, Christian missionaries decreased from 3,000 to 100.
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What happened to Muslims?
The Muslim region of Xinjiang was given the status of autonomy, but in reality Muslim men were forced to shave their beards and children were forced to leave Mosque schools.
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What about Buddhists?
Buddhist shrines were removed - even the Mao family's own; scriptures were used as toilet role; monks were forced to go home and working agriculturally; the Dalai Lama fled in 1959.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What did the New Marriage Law of 1950 provide?

Back

No more underage marriages; women were given property rights; no more arranged marriages without bride's consent; no more dowries; no more bride prices; a crackdown on foot-binding.

Card 3

Front

What was the problem with the New Marriage Law?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How did Mao seek to tap into the Labour potential of women?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What kinds of sexism did women face at this time?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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