China - Agricultural and industrial changes 1949-65

What were Mao's main aims for agriculture?
1. increase food supplies 2. not to exploit the population as he knew how unpopular communism was in Russia due to collectivisation 3. Needed agricultural policy to increase supplies
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What attacks were there on landlordism?
Communists viewed landlords as feudal class enemies. Needed to be removed to redistribute land to peasants. Peasants encouraged to drag landlords to "struggle meetings".Forced to give up land
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The redistribution of land
Agrarian Reform Law introduced in 1950. "system of peasant land ownership shall be introduced". Removed power of landlords. By summer of 1952, 43% of land had been redistributed to 60% of the population. Agricultural production boomed by 15%.
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How did the CCP move towards agricultural co-operation?
Had no intention of removing one landlord class with another and regarded the land reform as the first step. in 1951 introduced Mutual aid teams (MAT's)
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Agricultural producers co-operatives
Agricultural Producers Co-Operative (APC's) - made up of 30-50 households. Party reorganised landholdings into large units to make them more effective. Rich peasants didn't want to join. In 1953-54 grian production rose by 2%
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The change from voluntary to forced collectivisation
ACP failed. China not ready fro large scale farming as they lacked machinery. USSR had unpopular response to collectivisation so CCP introduced it step by step. In 1955 Mao demanded an increase in the reform pace. By 1956 88% part of ACP
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How were communes organised?
In 1956 Mao believed the reform coud move more quickly and organised peasants into communes. A policy called "walking on two legs". Communes had an average size of 5,500 households
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What was life like in a commune?
The creche was poorly managed with under qualified staff. Parents forced to work long hours. Food halls destroyed the tradition of eating as a family. Women undertake harsh physical labour.Mao organised "Four pests" campaign. Resulted in locuts
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The abolition of private farming
By the end of 1958, 99% of population in communes. Private ownership of land outlawed.
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What is Lysenkoism?
Lysenko was a soviet agrobiologist whose ideas had been supported by Stalin in the 1930's. Mao adopted some of his methods (e.g. Claimed crop yields would increase if the seeds were exposed to moisture and low temp), resulted to catastrophe.
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The Great Famine 1958-62
Bosses in the party set higher quotas believing there was lots of food. Land left fallow bc Party believed there would be too much food to store, whilst "excess" food was sent abroad resulting in famine
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What was life like during the great famine?
8 million people starved to death in Anhui Provence, 7.8 million in Henan, 9 million in Sichuan and 1 million in Tibet. Birth rates plummet as women's fertility dropped. People trying to steal food were killed. Outbreaks of cannibalism, and prostitut
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How far was Mao responsible for the great famine?
grain requisitioning. Exported food. Some blame over ambitious party cadres
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The restoration of private farming by Lui Shaopi and Dneg Xiaoping
They took grater control over the country after the great famine. Communes reduced in size and peasants allowed small private plots.Could trade food on markets
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What financial and technical support did the USSR give?
The 5 year plan closely modelled Stalin's plan for industry. Ussr was China's only major. Grain embargo imposed by western powers on China. Had to rely on USSR. Loan on $300 million over 5 years
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The first 5 year plans targets
Increase China's heavy industry, Mao wanted china to be self-sufficient.
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The first 5 year plans successes
Annual growth rate of 9% reaching most targets. Engineering works undertaken. Living standards and job security guaranteed. Population of towns doubled to 100 million. CCP established greater control
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The first 3 year plan failures
Quality sacrificed for quantity. Most workers had low levels of literacy and basic skills holding back economic growth. China's administrations lacked organisational and material experience.
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What were Mao's reasons for launching the second 5 year plan?
Desperate to transform China into a great economic power and anted to make chin the biggest communist state in asia. Wanted to make improvements in agriculture. Wanted to achieve "walking on two legs". No one opposed Mao
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State-owned enterprises
During Great leap forward, industrial firms taken over and run by state. Party dictated prices, wages and workers given a home as well as health care and education
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Successes of the 2nd five year plan
Increase in the production of raw materials. Tiananmen square was remodelled. Private property banned, communes introduced - seen as an ideological success.
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Failures of 2nd five year plan
Unrealistic targets. Millions worked to death or died of starvation. The belief of mobilising the masses to overcome economic reality was hopeless. Projects badly planned and caused environmental damage. Backyard furnaces .
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What are backyard furnaces?
When normal fuel was used up, peasants would put cooking implements into the furnaces. The quality of steel was so poor it was useless.
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What attacks were there on landlordism?


Communists viewed landlords as feudal class enemies. Needed to be removed to redistribute land to peasants. Peasants encouraged to drag landlords to "struggle meetings".Forced to give up land

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The redistribution of land


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Card 4


How did the CCP move towards agricultural co-operation?


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Card 5


Agricultural producers co-operatives


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