Childhood

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  • Created by: Anna
  • Created on: 08-04-14 19:37
What does Benedict (1934) argue about cross-cultural difference in childhood?
In simpler, non-industrial societies children are treated differently from their modern western counterparts. They have more responsibility in the home, less value is placed on obedience to adults + children's sexual behaviour is viewed differently.
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What are the features of the modern Western childhood?
Childhood is seen as a special innocent time of life, children are seen as immature, as a result they need a lengthy, protected period of socialisation and nurturing.
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What does Aries (1960) argue about childhood in medieval England?
The idea of childhood didn't exist. This is because, children weren't seen as having a different nature from adults, Work began from an early age and Children were 'mini-adults' with the same rights, duties and skills as adults.
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What does Shorter (1975) argue?
parental attitudes towards children were very different. e.g. child mortality rates were very high which encouraged indifference and neglect, especially towards infants.
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What is the modern notion of Childhood, which began to emerge in the 13th century?
Schools began to specialise in the education of the young, the church saw children as fragile 'creatures of god' needing discipline and protection from worldly evils and there was a growing distinction between adults and children's clothing.
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Why has the position of children changed?
Lower infant mortality rate, smaller families, specialist knowledge about children's health, banning child labour, compulsory schooling, children and protection laws, child rights and laws about social behaviour e.g drinking
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What was the underlying cause?
Industrialisation- a skilled labour force was needed.
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What doe Aries and Shorter argue>
That there has been a 'march of progress'. They argue the position of children has slowly improved and Family ans society have become 'child centered'.
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What has improved?
Children are better cared for- educationally, psychologically and medically, reduction in infant morality rate,higher SoL and smaller families mean children's needs are met and children are protected from harm and exploitation by laws.
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What are the opinions of Marxists and feminists (conflict views)?
They argue the 'march of progress' view is an over-generalised and idealised image. It ignores inequalities between children and between children and adults.
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What are the inequalities among children in western societies?
Gender differences, Ethnic differences and Class inequalities.
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What does Firestone (1979) argue about inequalities between adults and children?
Extensive care and protection are just new forms of oppression.
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What does Gittins (1998) argue?
There is an age patriarchy of adult domination that keeps children subordinate. E.g. adults exercise control over children's time e.g. bedtime, space e.g. where they can go, bodies e.g. what they eat and wear and making them economically dependent.
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How do children resist the restricted status of a 'child'?
By acting older e.g. smoking and drinking alcohol etc.
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What does Postman (1994) argue?
Childhood as we know it is disappearing, and that Children are becoming more like adults- gaining similar rights and acting in similar ways e.g. leisure, clothing and even crime.
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Why does Postman say this is happening?
Change from print culture to television culture.
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What is print culture?
It is when children lacked the literacy skills needed to access information, so adults could keep knowledge about sex, money, violence, illness and death secret from them.
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What is television culture?
It makes information available to both adults and children. The boundaries between adults are broken down, making adult authority weakened.
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What does Opie (1993) argue?
That childhood isn't dispapearing.
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What do others argue?
That Western norms of childhood is globalising and therefore not disappearing, but spreading.
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What does Palmer (2006) argue about the toxic child?
Rapid technological and cultural changes are damaging children's develpment e.g. junk food, computer games and long hours worked by parents. As a result, children are deprived of a genuine childhood.
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What does whetherchildhood is disappearing or changing depend on?
The emphasis on children's rights, the length of time spent in education, children's access to means of communication, growing similarities between children and adults leisure activities, dress and diet etc.
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Card 2

Front

What are the features of the modern Western childhood?

Back

Childhood is seen as a special innocent time of life, children are seen as immature, as a result they need a lengthy, protected period of socialisation and nurturing.

Card 3

Front

What does Aries (1960) argue about childhood in medieval England?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does Shorter (1975) argue?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the modern notion of Childhood, which began to emerge in the 13th century?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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