Childhood

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  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 06-03-15 20:03
What is the western notion of childhood?
Childhood is seen as a separate golden age of happiness and innocence. Children are seen as vulnerable and need protecting by being kept separate from the dangers of the adult world (child centred society)
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What are examples to show society is child centred?
Law-regulate what children are allowed or forbidden to do, Products and services for children-toys, food, books, entertainment, play areas, -Dress-wear different types of clothes to adults
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Childhood is a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ from who?
social construction from society
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What do we mean when we say childhood is socially contructed?
It is something created and defined by society so childhood is not natural but fixed to time, place and culture,
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What sociologist agreed childhood was a social construction and what did he argue?
Stephen Wagg-There is no Universal childhood experienced by all. Therefore, childhood isnt 'natural',
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What are two differences to show childhood is a social construction?
-Cross cultural differences, -Historcial differences,
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What sociologist found there was a cross cultural difference for children in Bolivia and what?
-Samantha Punch, -Children take responsibilty at an early age- In rural Bolivia, children work in the home and community from the age of 3,
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What sociologist found there was another cross cultural difference for children in Tikopia and what?
Firth-Less value if placed on children being obedient-In Tikopia, adults should not expect their children to be obedient,
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What is the last cross cultural difference for children in the Trobiand Islands?
Children's sexual behaviour varies- In the Trobiand islands, adults take the attitude of 'amused interest and tolerance' towards children's sexual experiences,
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Which sociologist investigated historical differences?
Aries
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When did he argue childhood didnt exist in the past?
10th to 13th century
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What is the first historical difference about laws?
The same laws applied to children and adults- there was no distinction made between children and adults, for example, children could recieve punishments as adults,
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What is the next historical difference about dress?
Children would dress like adults,
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What is the last historical difference about toys and games?
Toys and games specifically for children didnt exist,
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What sociologist supports Aries study and what did he find about parental attitudes at the time?
-Shorter, -Parental attitudes at the time were indifferent and neglectful. Children may have been refered to as it and forget how many children they had,
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What is the main reason for the changes in the position of children during the 19th and 20th centruy during industrialisation?
Legal changes to their position,
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What is the first example of a law to stop children working?
Child Labour laws-This restricts and excludes children from paid work and has made children economically dependent on their parents,
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What is another example of a law to ensure an education?
Compulsory schooling and raising the school leaving age- Created an extended period of economic dependency on adults,
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What is another example of a law to ensure children are protected?
Child Protection Legislation e.g. UN 1989 Rights Of The Child. Rights in terms of healthcare, education, protection from abuse and custody,
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What is the last example of a change to the law to show the change in the position of children?
Minimum age laws- e.g. sex and smoking laws reinforce the idea that children are separate to adults,
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What is another reason for the change in the position of children during industrialisation due to mass media?
Impact of mass media- Children have access to the same information as adults becuase of TV and the internet,
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What is the last reason about birth rates?
Lower infant and child mortality rates- as each child has a greater chance of surviving, parents are now more willing to make financial and emotional investments for their children,
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What view argues the position of children has improved?
March of Progress
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What two sociologists support this view?
Aries and Shorter,
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What four reasons suggests childhood has improved?
-better educated, -protection from abuse, -More child-cented, -Media and leisure activities,
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How much is spent on child education per year in the UK?
£64 billion
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However, what is a disadvantage of the March of progress view?
There is the idealised image of childhood- it ignores the dark side of childhood (abuse, bullying, divorce etc)
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What two inequalities present a conflict view that childhood has not improved for all children?
-Inequalities between children, -Inequalities between adults and children,
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What do Liberationists argue about inequalities between children and adults and and example theorist?
-Firestone, -They claim adults dont always use their power to protect children but instead to dominate, oppress and control them,
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What is the term used to describe adult domination and control over children?
Age patriarchy
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What four ways do adults control/restrict children?
-Space and Movement, -Time, -Bodies, -Neglect and Abuse,
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How do adults control children's space and movement?
They restrict the places children can play, CCTV in schools, driven to school,
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What sociologist found what evidence about parents restricting children's movement?
-Hillman, -Found that in 1971, 80% of 7-8 year olds were allowed to go to school without supervision. By 1990, this had fallen to 9%,
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Where are children free to 'roam'?
Sudan
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How do adults restrict time?
Adults control daily routines and the speed children 'grow up'
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However, where are children never too young to do adult tasks?
Samoa
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How do adults control children's bodies and an example where this is not the case?
-Adults control how children sit, dress, hairstles, piercings, -In the Trobiand Islands, childen have greater sexual freedom
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how is neglect and abuse described in the family and the types?
-The 'dark side' of family life, -Physical, sexual and emotional abuse,
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What evidence is there that children are neglected and abused by parents?
In 2006, 31,400 children were on Child Protection Registers,
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However, what is an evaluation of this view of inequalities between children and adults?
Adult intervention is necessary to safeguard children who are not mature enough to make rational decisions,
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What are the 4 differences to explain inequalities between children?
-Gender Differences, -Ethnic Differences -Class differences, -International differences,
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How does gender differences creates inequalities between children?
Feminists argue girls do more domestic labour than boys,
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How does ethnic differences create inequalities between children?
Asian parents are more likely to be overly strict and restricting with their daughters than other parents,
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How does class differences create inequalities between children?
Marxists argue that poorer working class children have higher infant and childhood morality rates, suffer more long term illness, do less well as school and more likely yo be placed on the child protection register,
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How does international differences create inequalities between children?
Childhood and life chances varies across the world e.g. higher infant moralitiy rate, poverty, child soldiers etc in LEDCs
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What evidence is there to suggest that international differences cause inequalities between children?
-90% of the world's low birth weight babies are born in Third World countries,
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Which sociologist argues childhood is disappearing and what does he suggest?
Postman- he argues that the period of childhood is shortening- children are growing up too quickly and losing their innocence,
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What are the four reasons for childhood disappearing?
-Disappearance of children's unsupervised games (less freedom to play), -Growing similarity between adult and children's clothing, -Children commiting 'adult' crimes, -Underage sex, drinking and smoking,
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What does Palmer argue about why childhood is becoming toxic?
As children's physicalm emotional and intellectual development is being damaged because of junk food, computer games, long working hours of parents and over-testing in schools,
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What is the UK low in surveys about children and what are these concerns about?
children's wellbeing, -obesitiy, self-harming, drug and alcohol abuse, violence, under age sex, teenage pregnancies etc
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Where did UNICEF's survey in 2007 place the UK for children's well being?
21/25
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Why does Postman suggest the main reason for childhood disappearing is?
Technology and the media have eroded the boundry between childhood and adulthood- TV and the intenet have allowed children to access adult knowledge and to grow up too quickly,
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However, what is the evaluation of Postman's view that technology is the cause of childhood disappearing?
Not all children are equally affected by the above changes- mainly children from the lower social class and poorer social groups,
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What sociologist also argues childhood is disappearing due to trend in birth rates and what?
Qvortrup-As the number of people who are parents with dependent children are decreasing, fewer voices will call for resources for children and creating an isolated childhood,
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Which sociologist argues childhood is not disappearing?
Opie
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Why does he suggest childhood isnt disappearing?
As children still have their own independent separate culture with rhymes, songs and still grow up often unsupervised by adults,
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What do Liberationists claim about childhood not disappearing?
they argue that the western notion of childhood is spreading throughout the world,
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are examples to show society is child centred?

Back

Law-regulate what children are allowed or forbidden to do, Products and services for children-toys, food, books, entertainment, play areas, -Dress-wear different types of clothes to adults

Card 3

Front

Childhood is a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ from who?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What do we mean when we say childhood is socially contructed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What sociologist agreed childhood was a social construction and what did he argue?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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