childhood

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  • Created by: kle1234
  • Created on: 10-03-16 15:50
childhood as a social construct
childhood is defined and created by society. what is seen as childhood varies between societies, within society (different classes) and historically.
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Benedict - cross-cultural differences in childhood
in simple non-industrial societies are treated differently from modern western counterparts. have less responsibility, less value placed on obedience to adult authority, sexual behaviour viewed differently.
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features of childhood in the west
childhood seen as special/innocent, children fundamentally different to adults, need to be protected, nurtured and socialised, childhood is a distinct life stage.
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Pilcher
key feature of the modern idea of childhood is separateness
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Cunningham
children seen as the opposite of adults., with the right to happiness.
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Aries
in medieval europe, the idea of childhood did not exist. children not seen as having different nature from adults. work began from early age. children mini-adults with same rights, duties and skills.
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Shorter
parental attitudes to children were different.
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the modern notation of childhood
schools specialised into education of the young. the church saw children as fragile creatures of god. there was a growing distinction between adult and children's clothing.
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Aries - the emergence of the modern cult of childhood
the 20th century was the century of the child.
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why has the position of children changed
lower infant mortality rates and smaller families. specialist knowledge about childrens health. laws banning child labour. compulsary schooling. child protection and welfare laws. the idea of childrens rights. laws about social behaviour.
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industrialisation was the underlying cause of the changing position of children.
modern industry needs an educated workforce so compulsory education is needed. higher standards of living resulting from more jobs available from industrialisation lead to lower infant mortality rates.
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has the position of children improved?
two competing views; the march of progress view and the conflict view
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the march of progress view
(aries, shorter and some others) childrens position steadily improving. family and society have become more child centered. children better cared for. most babies now survive. higher living standards and smaller family sizes. protected by laws.
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The conflict view
(marxists and feminists) march of progress over-generalised and idealised. ignores inequality among children and between children and adults. gender, ethnic and class inequalities among children.
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Gittins - age patriarchy
adult dominance keeps children subordinate. adults make children economically dependent on them. adult control can lead to physical, sexual or emotional abuse.
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resistance to the status of a child
some children resist the restricted status of child by acting older (eg. smoking/drinking alcohol).
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Hockey and James - resistance
resistance shows modern childhood is a status most children want to escape.
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Postman - the future of childhood
childhood as we know it is disappearing. children are becoming more like adults. this is a result of television culture replacing print culture
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television culture
makes information available for adults and children alike. boundary between adulthood and childhood broken down. adult authority weakened.
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print culture
children lack the literacy skills needed to access information. adults could keep 'adult matters' secret
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Opie
childhood is not disappearing. a separate childhood culture continues to exist in the form of game, jokes, songs ect.
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Palmer - toxic childhood
rapid technological and cultural changes are damaging childrens development. children are deprived of a genuine childhood.
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change or continuity of childhood
some aspects suggest it is changing, others sugget it is continuing. depends on what happens to; emphasis on childrens rights, time spent in education, growing similarities between children and adults.
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Lee
childhood has not disappeared but has become more complex and contradictory.
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Benedict - cross-cultural differences in childhood

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in simple non-industrial societies are treated differently from modern western counterparts. have less responsibility, less value placed on obedience to adult authority, sexual behaviour viewed differently.

Card 3

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features of childhood in the west

Back

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Card 4

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Pilcher

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Card 5

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Cunningham

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