Child Language Development Terminology

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Addition
Form of early mistake: adding extra vowel sound to create a CVCV structure
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Articulation
Creation of different speech sounds by modification of airflow in vocal organs
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Assimilation
Form of early mistake: substitution occurs because of similar sound around it e.g. doggie = goggie
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Babbling
Repeated consonant-vowel sounds and combinations
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Behaviourists
Theorists who believe language is acquired through imitation and reinforcement
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Bound morpheme
A morpheme that can only have meaning when attached to a free morpheme e.g. ing: going
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Child-directed speech CDS
Language used by parents and carers towards children and the features of it
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Cognitive theorists
Believe language acquisition is part of the wider development of understanding
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Consonant cluster reduction
Form of early mistake: groups of two or more consonants reduced to smaller units e.g. dry = dai; frog = fog
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Cooing
Open-mouthed vowel sounds
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Deletion
Form of early mistake: leaving out the last consonant e.g. mouse = mou
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Deletion of unstressed syllables
Form of early mistake: removing an unstressed syllable e.g. banana = nana; pretending = tending
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Derivational morphology
Study of how morphemes are used to help create new words e.g. conversion: I jammed the bread; affixation: It's crowdy in here; compounding: horsey-man
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Developmental / societal model (functional approach)
Account of a child's language development that foregrounds social context
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Free morpheme
A morpheme that can stand independently and act as a meaningful unit alone e.g. go
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Fricative
Sound created by slow, controlled release of air through mouth, causing friction
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Gestalt expressions
Grouping words together into unsegmented chunks e.g. inthere
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Grammatical words
Words which carry meaning as part of longer grammatical constructions e.g. prepositions, determiners, auxiliary verbs e.g. the: the train
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Grapheme
Smallest functional unit in a writing system
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Holophrase
A one word utterance used to communicate more than the one word on its own
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Hypernym
Category into which other words fit e.g. animal
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Hyponym
A word within the hypernym category e.g. dog, rabbit, cat are all within the hypernym animal
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Inflectional morphology
Study of how morphemes are used to create different grammatical functions e.g. walk: walks, walking walked
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Innate
Inborn, natural
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Language acquisition device LAD
Part of the brain that allows humans to develop language through the process of extracting rules from language heard and then
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Lexical words
Words which have meaning on their own. Usually nouns, main verbs, adjectives, adverbs e.g. trains
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Linear / cognitive model (traditional approach)
Account of child's language development that places literacy skills in a sequence
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Mean length of utterance MLU
The average number of morphemes used across as number of utterances
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Morpheme
The smallest unit of grammatical meaning
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Morphology
The study of word structure especially morphemes
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Nativist theories
Language acquisition is innate in all humans
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Nature
What we are born with, innate
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Nurture
What is acquired through experience and environmental influences
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Object permanence
Ability to understand that an object still exists even though it's no longer in sight
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One word / holophrastic stage
Child says single recognisable words
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Overextend
Stretch the meaning of a word
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Overgeneralisation
Overapplication of grammatical rule - a form of virtuous error
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Phoneme
Smallest unit of sound in a language
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Phonemic contraction
Number of different phonemes produced by child decreases (at 9 - 10 months)
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Phonemic expansion
Number of different phonemes produced by child increases
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Phonemic rendition
Words spelled as they sound
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Pitch
High or low sounds
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Post-telegraphic stage
Grammatically complete utterances
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Pre-verbal
Stages before child says actual word sounds
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Recast
Rephrase in a more developed or standard grammatical form
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Reduplicated monosyllables
Repetition of the same sound e.g. mama
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Reduplication
Form of early mistake: repetition of particular sounds / structures e.g. choochoo
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Referent
Object or person in real world to which a sound consistently relates
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Relative clause
Subordinate clause used to add more information about another clause element. Acts like an adjective
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Segment
To break down stream of speech into understandable units of meaning
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Seriation
Placing of items in a series e.g. ascending order. Understanding this concept
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Social interaction theories
Verbal and social interaction helps a child's language is developed through close interaction with carers
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Social interactionists
Theorists who believe that child language is developed through close interactions with carers
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Stops
Air flow stopped at; glottal stop = back of mouth; t = alveolar ridge; p = by lips
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Substitution
Form of early mistake: one sound swapped for an easier sound e.g. rabbit = wabbit
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Telegraphic stage
Three to six word combinations, gradually expanding with age
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Two word stage
Child says phrases of two words
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Underextend
Contract the meaning of a word
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Universal grammar
The theory that all languages share a similar grammatical structure under the surface
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Utterance
A stretch or continuous unit of speech
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Vegetative
Reflex crying noises
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Virtuous error
Mistake that is logical and sheds light on a child's processes of language development
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Creation of different speech sounds by modification of airflow in vocal organs

Back

Articulation

Card 3

Front

Form of early mistake: substitution occurs because of similar sound around it e.g. doggie = goggie

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Repeated consonant-vowel sounds and combinations

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Theorists who believe language is acquired through imitation and reinforcement

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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