Child language acquistion

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pre-verbal
anything a baby does or says before meaningful words are used
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non-verbal
behaviour that does not involve voice
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vocalisation
the sounds made using the voice but which cannot be described as words
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crying
first few weeks of life-expressing vocally e.g food, distress
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cooing
6-8 weeks old- developing control of vocal cords
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babbling
6-9 months - resemble adult language
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proto-words
word-like vocalisations, invented and consistent meaning e.g bobo is bottle
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reduplicated monosyllables
e.g baba, mama
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specific nominds
names for people, animals or unique objects
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general nominds
names for classes of objects, people or animals e.g milk, doggie, girl
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action words
eg. bye-bye up look hi
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modifiers
big red pretty all-gone there mine
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function words
what where is to for
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labelling
eg touches a dolls' eyes and says eyes
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repeating
says what an adult has just said
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answering
answers adults question
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calling
shouts for parent across the room
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protesting
shouts when parent attempts to put in shoe
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practising
utters word when person or object not present
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deletion
adult ends word in consonant, a baby will simply miss out the consonant eg ca for cat
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substitution
substitues one sound for another eg cat become tat
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addition
addition of an extra vowel sound eg egg pronouced as egu
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de-voicing
taking the voice out of /b/ to produce /p/ eg piG become biK
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voicing
Pig become Bik
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assimilation
one constant or vowel becomes similar eg gog for dog
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reduplication
repitition of a whole syllable eg choo choo
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overextension
child uses word more broadly than adult
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underextension
child uses word less broadly than adult would
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holophrastic
one word utterances 12-18m
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two word
two word combination 18-24m
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telegraphic
three and more words combined 24-36m
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post-telegraphic
more grammatically complex combinations 36+m
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nativists
believe that humans have inbuilt capacity to acquire lang e.g chomsky
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behaviourist
those who believe that language is acquired through imitation and reinforcement e.g skinner
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social interactionists
those who believe language develops through interactions with carers
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postive reinforcement
behaviour rewarded to encourage repeating
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negative reinforcement
undesirable behaviour is unrewarded to stop repitition
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overgeneralisation
a learner's extension of word meaning or grammatical ule beyond its normal use
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cognitive theorists
those who believe that language acquistion is part of a wider development of understanding
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virtuous error
syntaticic errors made by young children in which the non-standard utterance reveals some understanding through incomplete, of standard syntax
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recast
the commenting on, extending and rephrasing of a child's utterance
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categorical oversextension
apple used for all round fruits
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Analogical overextension
ball used for a round fruit
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Questions
what usually comes first, then where, then why, then time
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positive politeness
where the individal desires social approval and being included
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negative politeness
where individual asserts their need to be independent and make own descisions
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sociodramatic play
involves both social and dramaic skill, with rules and reflecting real-world behaviour around aged 4
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child directed speech
din-din, beddy-byes often represents sing-song intonation
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baby talk
focuses on simple lexical features and exaggerated prosodic features
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

behaviour that does not involve voice

Back

non-verbal

Card 3

Front

the sounds made using the voice but which cannot be described as words

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

first few weeks of life-expressing vocally e.g food, distress

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

6-8 weeks old- developing control of vocal cords

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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