Child Language Acquisition

HideShow resource information
What are plosives?
Where air is held back, then released (p,b,d,t,k,g)
1 of 71
What are fricatives?
Have a vibrating quality (f,v,th)
2 of 71
What are sibilants?
Hissing sounds (s,z,sh,ge)
3 of 71
What are Affricates?
Combination of plosive and sibilants (ch,j,dg)
4 of 71
What are nasals?
Air comes out of the nose (m,n,ng)
5 of 71
What are liquids/approximants?
Vague sounds (l,w,r,h,y)
6 of 71
What are diphthongs?
Vowels with two sounds joined together (I, ow, u)
7 of 71
What are short vowels?
a,e,i,o,u
8 of 71
When does the cooing stage start?
Around 6-8 weeks old
9 of 71
What are the first sounds babies make?
Long, open vowel sounds (aaaaaaa)
10 of 71
What happens in the second part of the cooing stage?
They start to use velar consonants (using the back part of the tongue) (coo and ga)
11 of 71
When does the babbling stage start?
Around six months old
12 of 71
What is reduplicated babbling?
Repeating consonant/vowel combinations (ma-ma-ma)
13 of 71
What is variegated babbling?
Not repeating consonant/vowel combinations (goo-gi-goo-ga)
14 of 71
What is phonemic expansion?
The number of phonemes a child produces increases
15 of 71
What is phonemic contraction?
Number of phonemes used is reduced and the child focuses on reproducing the phonemes it hears in its native language
16 of 71
When do intonation patterns begin to be shown?
In the early stages of babbling.
17 of 71
What are proto-words?
Certain combinations of consonants and vowels which start to carry meaning. (e.g. mmmmm to signify they want more food)
18 of 71
What is jargoning?
At around 9 months, children start to sound like they're speaking their own made-up language.
19 of 71
What is vowel/consonant harmony?
Making all the vowels/consonants in a word the same (Doggy - doddy)
20 of 71
What is cluster reduction?
Where 2 or more consonants are next to each other, one is removed (sleep to seep)
21 of 71
What is substitution?
Difficult sounds are swapped for easier ones (often fricative or affricate) (jump to dump)
22 of 71
What is unstressed syllable deletion?
Where a syllable is deleted (banana to nana)
23 of 71
What is final consonant deletion?
Deleting the last consonant (cat to ca')
24 of 71
What is reduplication?
Repeating a syllable instead of using a different one.
25 of 71
What are diminutive forms?
Adding a vowel, usually 'y' to avoid the final consonant (dog to doggy)
26 of 71
What is receptive vocabulary?
Words that a child can understand, which may be measured giving physical or virtual tasks to set their comprehension
27 of 71
What is productive vocabulary?
Words a child can actually say
28 of 71
When is a child's first word usually said?
Around 1 year old.
29 of 71
What is labelling?
When a child links a sound to an object - they are able to call something by its correct name
30 of 71
What is packaging?
When a child begins to understand the range of meaning a word might have.
31 of 71
What is over extension?
Calling all similar things in a group by the same name (calling everything with fur and four legs a dog)
32 of 71
What is network building?
When a child starts to make connections between words, such as understanding synonyms and opposites
33 of 71
What is another name for the one-word stage?
Holophrastic stage
34 of 71
What are holophrases?
Single words that express a complete idea
35 of 71
When does the two-word stage usually begin?
Around 18 months.
36 of 71
What is the two-word stage the start of?
Syntax.
37 of 71
What are the four basic blocks of meaning needed for sentences?
Subject, verb, object and compliment
38 of 71
What are the four common construction combinations in the two-word stage?
Subject/verb, verb/object, subject/object, subject/complement
39 of 71
When does the telegraphic stage usually start?
Around 2 years.
40 of 71
How many word combinations are used in the telegraphic stage?
Three or four
41 of 71
Which words are usually omitted in the telegraphic stage?
Functional words (prepositions, auxiliary verbs and determiners)
42 of 71
What are complements (constructions)
Give more information about the subject or object.
43 of 71
What is morphology?
Grammar within words. The way words are created with affixes.
44 of 71
How can turn-taking and adjacency pairs be learned even before a child learns to speak?
Games such as peek-a-boo and rolling a ball back and forth
45 of 71
What are phonological examples of CDS?
Intonation, speed, breaking down multisyllabic words, diminutive forms, reduplication, more careful pronunciation.
46 of 71
What are lexical examples of CDS?
Using concrete rather than abstract nouns, dynamic verbs, monosyllabic words instead of polysyllabic, jargon (for children's favourite topics)
47 of 71
What are grammatical examples of CDS?
Simple sentences, omit modal/auxiliary verbs, use nouns and proper nouns, direct questions and imperatives
48 of 71
What are pragmatic and discourse examples of CDS?
Adults initiating interactions, politeness features, turn-taking, redundant questions, scaffold, expanding on child's utterances
49 of 71
What are Halliday's 7 functions?
Personal, representational, regulatory, interactional, imaginative, instrumental and heuristic
50 of 71
What is personal language?
The use of language to express feelings, opinions and individual identity
51 of 71
What is representational language?
Use of language to convey facts and information
52 of 71
What is regulatory language?
Used to tell others what to do
53 of 71
What is interactional language?
Used to make contact with others and form relationships
54 of 71
What is imaginative language?
Used to tell stories, jokes and create an imaginary environment
55 of 71
What is instrumental language?
Used to express the child's needs
56 of 71
What is heuristic language?
Used to gain knowledge about the environment
57 of 71
What is the behaviourist approach?
Everything we know and do is learned. We are all born a 'blank slate' and learn according to what happens to us
58 of 71
Behaviourists believe in operant conditioning, what is this?
Reward and punishment plays a part in language
59 of 71
What evidence is there for behaviourist theory?
Babies copying parents from a young age, copied accents, politeness/social actions.
60 of 71
What is the innateness theory?
Imitation can't explain the speed at which children learn language, the ability to learn to speak has evolved to become a part of nature.
61 of 71
Who is a behaviourist?
Skinner
62 of 71
Who believes in innateness?
Chomsky, Lenneburg
63 of 71
What evidence is there for innateness?
Over-generalisation, virtuous errors,
64 of 71
What is the Critical period hypothesis?
Proposed by Lenneberg. Without linguistic interaction before ages 5-6, language development is severely limited.
65 of 71
What did Vygotsky believe?
Social interaction and experiencing different social and cultural contexts are very important for language development.
66 of 71
What is scaffolding?
Children require less and less assistance from care givers once they become more able to deal with different social and cultural situations on their own.
67 of 71
What is private speech?
When a child talks aloud to itself. Vygotsky saw this a major step forward in a child's mental development - evidence that the child is thinking for itself.
68 of 71
What is the ZPD?
When a child needs a caregiver's help in order to interact. The caregiver either responds for the child or tries to encourage a response. This gives the child a model to apply to similar situations in the future when it might respond without help.
69 of 71
What did Bruner (Input approach) believe?
In order for language to develop, there has to be linguistic interaction with caregivers. LASS
70 of 71
What did Piaget (cognitive theory) believe?
Focuses on the importance of mental processes. A child needs to have developed certain mental abilities before they can acquire particular sets of language. Egocentricity. Object permanence (around 18 months)
71 of 71

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are fricatives?

Back

Have a vibrating quality (f,v,th)

Card 3

Front

What are sibilants?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are Affricates?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are nasals?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar English Language resources:

See all English Language resources »See all Child language acquisition resources »