Child Language Acquisition

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What are plosives?
Where air is held back, then released (p,b,d,t,k,g)
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What are fricatives?
Have a vibrating quality (f,v,th)
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What are sibilants?
Hissing sounds (s,z,sh,ge)
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What are Affricates?
Combination of plosive and sibilants (ch,j,dg)
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What are nasals?
Air comes out of the nose (m,n,ng)
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What are liquids/approximants?
Vague sounds (l,w,r,h,y)
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What are diphthongs?
Vowels with two sounds joined together (I, ow, u)
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What are short vowels?
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When does the cooing stage start?
Around 6-8 weeks old
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What are the first sounds babies make?
Long, open vowel sounds (aaaaaaa)
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What happens in the second part of the cooing stage?
They start to use velar consonants (using the back part of the tongue) (coo and ga)
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When does the babbling stage start?
Around six months old
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What is reduplicated babbling?
Repeating consonant/vowel combinations (ma-ma-ma)
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What is variegated babbling?
Not repeating consonant/vowel combinations (goo-gi-goo-ga)
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What is phonemic expansion?
The number of phonemes a child produces increases
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What is phonemic contraction?
Number of phonemes used is reduced and the child focuses on reproducing the phonemes it hears in its native language
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When do intonation patterns begin to be shown?
In the early stages of babbling.
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What are proto-words?
Certain combinations of consonants and vowels which start to carry meaning. (e.g. mmmmm to signify they want more food)
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What is jargoning?
At around 9 months, children start to sound like they're speaking their own made-up language.
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What is vowel/consonant harmony?
Making all the vowels/consonants in a word the same (Doggy - doddy)
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What is cluster reduction?
Where 2 or more consonants are next to each other, one is removed (sleep to seep)
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What is substitution?
Difficult sounds are swapped for easier ones (often fricative or affricate) (jump to dump)
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What is unstressed syllable deletion?
Where a syllable is deleted (banana to nana)
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What is final consonant deletion?
Deleting the last consonant (cat to ca')
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What is reduplication?
Repeating a syllable instead of using a different one.
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What are diminutive forms?
Adding a vowel, usually 'y' to avoid the final consonant (dog to doggy)
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What is receptive vocabulary?
Words that a child can understand, which may be measured giving physical or virtual tasks to set their comprehension
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What is productive vocabulary?
Words a child can actually say
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When is a child's first word usually said?
Around 1 year old.
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What is labelling?
When a child links a sound to an object - they are able to call something by its correct name
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What is packaging?
When a child begins to understand the range of meaning a word might have.
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What is over extension?
Calling all similar things in a group by the same name (calling everything with fur and four legs a dog)
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What is network building?
When a child starts to make connections between words, such as understanding synonyms and opposites
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What is another name for the one-word stage?
Holophrastic stage
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What are holophrases?
Single words that express a complete idea
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When does the two-word stage usually begin?
Around 18 months.
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What is the two-word stage the start of?
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What are the four basic blocks of meaning needed for sentences?
Subject, verb, object and compliment
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What are the four common construction combinations in the two-word stage?
Subject/verb, verb/object, subject/object, subject/complement
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When does the telegraphic stage usually start?
Around 2 years.
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How many word combinations are used in the telegraphic stage?
Three or four
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Which words are usually omitted in the telegraphic stage?
Functional words (prepositions, auxiliary verbs and determiners)
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What are complements (constructions)
Give more information about the subject or object.
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What is morphology?
Grammar within words. The way words are created with affixes.
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How can turn-taking and adjacency pairs be learned even before a child learns to speak?
Games such as peek-a-boo and rolling a ball back and forth
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What are phonological examples of CDS?
Intonation, speed, breaking down multisyllabic words, diminutive forms, reduplication, more careful pronunciation.
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What are lexical examples of CDS?
Using concrete rather than abstract nouns, dynamic verbs, monosyllabic words instead of polysyllabic, jargon (for children's favourite topics)
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What are grammatical examples of CDS?
Simple sentences, omit modal/auxiliary verbs, use nouns and proper nouns, direct questions and imperatives
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What are pragmatic and discourse examples of CDS?
Adults initiating interactions, politeness features, turn-taking, redundant questions, scaffold, expanding on child's utterances
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What are Halliday's 7 functions?
Personal, representational, regulatory, interactional, imaginative, instrumental and heuristic
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What is personal language?
The use of language to express feelings, opinions and individual identity
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What is representational language?
Use of language to convey facts and information
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What is regulatory language?
Used to tell others what to do
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What is interactional language?
Used to make contact with others and form relationships
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What is imaginative language?
Used to tell stories, jokes and create an imaginary environment
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What is instrumental language?
Used to express the child's needs
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What is heuristic language?
Used to gain knowledge about the environment
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What is the behaviourist approach?
Everything we know and do is learned. We are all born a 'blank slate' and learn according to what happens to us
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Behaviourists believe in operant conditioning, what is this?
Reward and punishment plays a part in language
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What evidence is there for behaviourist theory?
Babies copying parents from a young age, copied accents, politeness/social actions.
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What is the innateness theory?
Imitation can't explain the speed at which children learn language, the ability to learn to speak has evolved to become a part of nature.
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Who is a behaviourist?
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Who believes in innateness?
Chomsky, Lenneburg
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What evidence is there for innateness?
Over-generalisation, virtuous errors,
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What is the Critical period hypothesis?
Proposed by Lenneberg. Without linguistic interaction before ages 5-6, language development is severely limited.
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What did Vygotsky believe?
Social interaction and experiencing different social and cultural contexts are very important for language development.
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What is scaffolding?
Children require less and less assistance from care givers once they become more able to deal with different social and cultural situations on their own.
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What is private speech?
When a child talks aloud to itself. Vygotsky saw this a major step forward in a child's mental development - evidence that the child is thinking for itself.
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What is the ZPD?
When a child needs a caregiver's help in order to interact. The caregiver either responds for the child or tries to encourage a response. This gives the child a model to apply to similar situations in the future when it might respond without help.
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What did Bruner (Input approach) believe?
In order for language to develop, there has to be linguistic interaction with caregivers. LASS
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What did Piaget (cognitive theory) believe?
Focuses on the importance of mental processes. A child needs to have developed certain mental abilities before they can acquire particular sets of language. Egocentricity. Object permanence (around 18 months)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are fricatives?


Have a vibrating quality (f,v,th)

Card 3


What are sibilants?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What are Affricates?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What are nasals?


Preview of the front of card 5
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