Child Development

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Adolescence
A period of time over which a child's body develops into a sexually mature adult bodies.
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Development
The skills and knowledge that children gain.
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Growth
The process in which cells subdivide.
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Neural Growth
When neuron cells increase in size.
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Spurt
A short period of intense growth.
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Axon
The part of the neuron where electricity travels.
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Axon terminal
A part of the neuron involved in making a connection with another neuron.
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Dendrite
A part of the neuron involved in making a connection with another neuron.
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Myelin
The substance which coats the axon.
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Myelinisation
The process of myelin coating.
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Neural pathway
An established route for signals within the brain.
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Neuron
A brain cell.
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Neuroscience
The study of how the brain grows and works.
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Synapse
The connection made between a dendrite of another neuron and an axon terminal of another.
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Gestation
The period of time between conception and birth.
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Reflexes
Automatic movements that do not require a conscious decision.
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Indiscriminate attachments
When babies and children do not seem to have formed special relationships with other people.
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Multiple attachments
When babies and children have many specific attachments to other people.
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Object permanence
Recognition that when objects are out of sight they have not disappeared.
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Specific attachments
When babies and children have formed special bonds with other people.
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Mouthing
Exploring items by putting them in their mouths.
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Co-operative play
When children are playing with each other.
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Onlooker play
When young children are watching other children play and copying their actions from a distance.
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Parrall Play
When young children play next to each other using similar actions and materials. They are aware of each other but are not playing with each other.
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Theory of mind
Children recognise their own concious mind and understand that other people will have different thoughts than them.
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Behaviourist
The belif that development is shaped by the environment.
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Nativist
The belif that development is predetermined.
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Predisposition
An increase likelihood of showing skills, trait or developing a condition as a result of genetic inheritance.
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Variables
Factors that may be involved in development.
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Conditioning
Learning to act in a certain way because past experiences have taught us to do, or not do something.
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Encode
The process in which information gained by the brain is stored.
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Retrive
The process in which memories can be activated.
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Operant conditioning
A theory of that suggests that the environment 'operates' on and then influences a childs learning through the use of reinforcers.
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Reinforcers
Positive or negative experiences used to strenghen a childs behavioral response.
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Constructive aproach
A model to explain children's cognitive development, which considers that children develop their own ideas based on experiences and interactions.
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Schemas
A repeated action, way of doing something or way of thinking / reasoning that can be specific or generalised.
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Hypothesis
To speculate or propose an idea or theory.
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Qualitative data
Information that is collected by informal methods and can not be scientifically replicated.
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Social constructivist
A model that explains children's cognitive development by suggesting that their logic and reasoning is developed through experiences, but also by interactions with and questions from adults and older children.
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Scaffolding
A term used to describe a style of working with children in which the adult helps the child aquire information.
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Phonemes
The smallest unit of a sound in a language that helps ditinguish one word from another.
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Sympathy
The ability to feel or understand the emotions of others.
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Trait
A set of characteristics.
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Attachments
A special relationship or bond between a child and people who are emotionally involved in them.
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Separation anxiety
A set of behaviours and actions that occour when a child is destresed as a result of the person or people they are attached to being absent.
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Infant mortality
The rate of death in the first year of life.
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Morbidity
The rate of incidence of ill health within a population.
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Card 2

Front

The skills and knowledge that children gain.

Back

Development

Card 3

Front

The process in which cells subdivide.

Back

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Card 4

Front

When neuron cells increase in size.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A short period of intense growth.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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