Child psych

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  • Created by: Sophie153
  • Created on: 19-02-16 21:05
what are nativist theories?
Nature Maturational unfolding of innate knowledge and abilities
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what are empiricist theories?
Nurture All knowledge and abilities are learned E.g., James (1890),
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who is Jean Piaget?
he wasnt a developmental psychologist-he was a biologist with a particular interest in mechanisms of adaptation.His 1st interest wasnt in child development but in the nature of knowledge–epistemology.He viewed intelligence as a mechanism of adaptati
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Key ideas in Piaget’s theory
Constructivism Adaptation/organisation Schemas Assimilation Accommodation Equilibrium Disequilibrium Stages of development
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what is constructivism?
primarily interested in how knowledge develops,Argued innate endowments and experience are necessary but not sufficient Child must also actively engage with the world to construct knowledge
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what is Adaptation?
Cognitive development/learning is a form of adaptation to the environment (evolutionary metaphor) Adaptation = main driving force of cognitive change
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what are schemas?
basic components of intelligence.Two main types: sensorimotor &representational Constructed through adaptation.Assimilation:using existing schemas to interpret new experiences. Accommodation:modifying existing/creating new schemas to fit reality
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what happens When faced with disequilibrium?
we use accommodation to return to equilibrium
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what are the stages of development?
sensorimotor- pre-operational- concrete operational- formal operational. Shifts between stages = major points of equilibration (bringing equilibrium). Stages occur in a fixed sequence and are never skipped Stages are “domain general
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what is the Sensorimotor stage?
infant understands world through senses& motoric actions.0-2 years.Innate reflexes, become deliberate actions on objects (and self) to learn how things work to mental representations of actions.What had to be done physically can be done mentally
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what is Pre-operational stage?
child understands the world through symbols. 2-7 years.Schemas are fully representational. Improvements in symbolic thinking: Language, Drawing pictures, Pretend play.Thinking is illogical–schemas poorly organisedCan’t coordinate/integrate multiple
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Can’t coordinate/integrate multiple mental actions (i.e., use “operations”), which results in: Egocentrism Centration Irreversibility
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what is Concrete operational stage?
child understands the world through logical thinking. 7-11 years.Children start to think logically, and thinking is much more flexible and organised Can use “operations” (coordinated sets of mental representations) But, thinking is still “concrete”
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(not abstract) Using concrete operations, they can combine, order, and transform objects in their minds
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what is Formal operational stage?
adolescent/adult understands the world through abstract and scientific reasoning. 11+years.Formal operations enable hypothetico-deductive reasoning Task is to work out the what determines the pendulum’s swinging speed Adolescents produce
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multiple hypotheses and systematically test them one at a time
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what is Egocentrism: Three mountains task
Child must imagine scene from doll’s perspective Children under 7 years give egocentric responses
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what is conservation?
= idea that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same even if their outward appearance changes Centration and irreversibility mean children below 7/8 years can’t conserve
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what is Transitive inferences?
Concrete operations allow children to make transitive inferences If John is bigger than Mary, and Mary is bigger Janet, then who is the biggest? But, they can only reason about actual (concrete/true) pictures or objects, not if abstract: If a > b
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what are main criticisms of Piagets theory?
It underestimates the cognitive abilities of infants and children It overestimates the cognitive abilities of adolescents and adults
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Strengths of Piaget’s theory and research
Complex and comprehensive theory Emphasis on active role of child was revolutionary Introduced countless new concepts and research methods Considerable continuity between Piaget’s ideas and modern cognitive developmental psychology
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Weaknesses of Piaget’s theory and research
Many of Piaget’s methods were overly complex Although he got what develops right much of the time, he got when it develops wrong in many cases Underestimated the role of cultural and social influences, and formal education on cognition
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what did Lev Vygotsky do?
The entire history of the child’s psychological development shows us that, from the very first days of development, its adaptation to the environment is achieved through social means, through the people surrounding it”
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Key ideas in Vygotsky’s theory?
Social constructivism Elementary and higher cognitive functions Social origins of thinking Internalisation Private speech and inner speech Zone of proximal development Scaffolding
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what is Social constructivism
Knowledge is constructed through social interaction Child viewed as an apprentice rather than scientist (Piagets theory)
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what are Elementary cognitive functions?
Not unique to humans Innate Involuntary and unconscious E.g. involuntary memory
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what are Higher cognitive functions
Unique to humans Socially constructed Voluntary and conscious E.g., voluntary memory
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what is Internalisation?
reformulation of social functions into psychological function.Any function in the child’s cultural development appears twice, or on two planes. First it appears on the social plane and then on the psychological plane
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what are stages?
At first, thought and language are independent (social speech only) At ~3 years, thought and language start to converge (+private speech/egocentric speech) At ~ 6 to 7 years, children start thinking in speech (+inner speech)
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Strengths of Vygotsky’s theory?
Helps explain cultural variations, Implications for education
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Weaknesses of Vygotsky’s theory?
Says little about biological influences, Doesn’t fully explain how processes are internalised, Minimises contributions of the individual
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key similarities of the theories>
Both theories are genuinely developmental Both consider constructive processes to be essential Both emphasize importance of qualitative changes Both recognise social influences on development
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key differences
Types of developmental process Relative importance of adult and peer influences The influence of culture on cognitive development The relation between language and thought
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differences in developmental processes
Piaget: development occurs as the result of processes within the individual Vygotsky: development involves the internalisation of processes that originally occurred between individuals
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adult and peer influences
Piaget: Peers have a greater influence than adults on cognitive development Disagreements with peers cause “sociocognitive conflict”, which motivates change Vygotsky: Adults have a greater influence than peers Children learn most in zone of proximal
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influence on culture
Piaget: Culture has minimal influence on cognitive development Vygotsky: Culture has a massive influence on cognitive development
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relation between language and thought
Piaget: Cognitive development is largely independent of language Vygotsky: Language is critical for cognitive development
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