Child Language Acquisition - Learning to write

  • Created by: Annagc
  • Created on: 16-04-19 12:38
What is a grapheme?
a letter or blend of letters which represent a sound
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What is a phoneme?
the sound of a letter or a blend of letters within a word
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What is the look and say approach?
Encourages children to identify familiar words as a whole to then read them accurately
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What is the phonic approach
Encourages readers to break down words into graphemes and sound them out in order to read the whle word accurately
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Chall's pre-reading stage
Up to 6 years, pseudo reading, turning pages, creating stories based on images
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Chall's initial reading and decoding stage
Age 6-7, Identify familiar words, recognise letters and blend sounds together, can hamper understanding of the text as a whole
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Chall's confirmation and fluency stage
Age 7-8, decode words more fluently, greater understanding of the meaning of the text
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Chall's reading for learning stage
Age 9-13, reading to obtain facts and scanning for most relevant details
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Chall's multiple viewpoints stage
Age 14-18, recognise how meaning can be conveyed in different ways, recognise bias and inference
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Chall's construction and reconstruction stage
Age 18+, can develop own interpretations from a range of sources, recognise what is and isn't important to read
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What are synthetic phonics?
Teaches children individual phonemes independently from reading, they can then blend them together to pronounce a word
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What are analytic phonics?
Doesn't teach individual phonemes before reading but encourages the breaking down of words into key sections
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What is oracy?
An individuals development of speaking and listening skills
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What is literacy?
An individuals development of reading and writing skills
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What is the tripod grip?
the way in which a pen or pencil should be held, using the thumb, forefinger and middle finger to allow controlled movement
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What are gross motor skills?
the skills associated with larger movement e.g. walking, waving
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What are fine motor skills?
the skills associated with more precise movement e.g. writing, sewing
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What is directionality?
The process of writing from left to right
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How do books help with directionality?
Presents writing in straight lines, images to encourage reader to hold the book the right way
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How do children learn to write from a cognitive perspective?
They learn how words are encoded into written form
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How do parents help children learn what graphemes look like?
They provide magnetic or foam letters
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What is emergent writing?
When children make signs on a page which they intend to represent a particular word or series of words, they understand that writing occurs but not the complexity of the process
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Kroll's preparatory stage of writing
Up to age 6, develop fine motor skills
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Kroll's consolidation stage of writing
Age 7-8, write as they speak in short declarative sentences using conjunctions
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Kroll's differentiation stage of writing
Age 9-10, begin to differentiate between speech and writing, different styles of writing are understood, reflects their thoughts and feelings, still a number of errors
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Kroll's integration stage of writing
Mid teens, develop a personal style and can alter writing according to audience and purpose
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What is the creative approach to learning to write?
The child is allowed to experiment with language without correction and by trial and error
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What is the conventions of writing approach to learning?
When a child understand spelling, punctuation and grammar rules progress will be more rapid
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Rothery's Observation/comment category
A child observes something and makes a comment on it
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Rothery's Recount category
This is a subjective, chronological account of an event
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Rothery's Report category
An objective factual description of an event or a thing, it doesn't need to be chronological
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Rothery's Narrative category
It involves an orientation, complication, resolution and coda
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Britton's expressive writing
Enables children to explore their own identity and preferences through writing, uses first person as they are egocentric
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Britton's poetic writing
Creative writing using imagery and phonological features such as alliteration and rhyme
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Britton's transactional writing
The writer is able to separate their own identity from the writing, it takes an impersonal tone
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How does writing for a variety of purposed in the home aid writing development?
They develop their independence and see the point of writing
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Gentry's Pre-communicative stage of spelling
Random letters and symbols with no letter to sound connection
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Gentry's Semi-phonetic stage of spelling
Letters used to represent whole words , some letter to sound connection
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Gentry's Phonetic stage of spelling
Spelling based on the sound of words
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Gentry's Transactional stage of spelling
Spelling combines phonetic and visual approaches, silent letters begin to be included
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Gentry's conventional stage of spelling
Difficult spellings have been learnt and words with alternative spellings are known
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What is a homonym?
Words that are spelt the same but pronounced differently
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What is a homophone?
Words tht are pronounced the same but have different meanings
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What is undergeneralisation of spelling?
Not applyig the standard rule when you should
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What is overgeneralisation of spelling?
Applying the standard rule when the word is irregular
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What is transposition?
Switching a pair of letter around within a word
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What is a digraph?
A cluster of two letters which represent one sound
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What is the developmental model for understanding how children develop writing?
Only when the cognitive awareness of items, features or characteristics is there can they develop more ambitious vocabulary
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is a phoneme?


the sound of a letter or a blend of letters within a word

Card 3


What is the look and say approach?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is the phonic approach


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Chall's pre-reading stage


Preview of the front of card 5
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