Child Language Acquisition

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What is lexical development?
The acquisition of words
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What is semantic development?
The acquisitions of meanings associated with words
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How many words can the child say at each age?
18 months-about 50 words, 2 years-about 200 words,5 years-about 2000 words, 7 years-about 4000 words.
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What is the holophrastic phase?
When the child uses one word as a full sentence.
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What is the two-word stage?
At 18 months two word utterances begin to appear. They are usually grammatically correct sequence. Omit function words and focus on key words.
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What is the telegraphic stage?
At age 2 three and four word utterances begin to be produced some will be grammatically complete but other may have grammatical elements missing.
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What are Nelson's stages of classification?
1.Classes of objects. 2.Specific objects. 3.Actions/events. 4. Modifying things. 5.Personal/social
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What are Halliday's reasons for speech?
Instrumental,Regulatory ,Interactional, Personal, Representational, Heuristic, Imaginative
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What are Dore's types of speech?
Labelling, Repeating ,Answering, Requesting action ,Calling ,Greeting, Protesting, Practicing.
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What is underextension?
Children give words a much narrower meaning than they have.
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What is overextension?
Children give words a much wider meaning than they have.
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What are Rescarla's three types of overextension?
Categorical,Analogical and Statement
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What is categorical overextension?
A word for one member of a clear family is extended to other members of the same family.
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What is analogical overextension?
A word for one object is extended to another that is not in the same category but has similar qualities to the original object.
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What is statement overextension?
Similar to a one-word phrase. The child is not labelling but making a statement.
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What is an inflectional morpheme?
A morpheme that modifies tense or number.
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What is Brown's stages of learning inflectional morphemes?
1.Present participle ,2.Plurals ,3.Possessives, 4.Past tense ,5.Third person singular verb
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What are Cruttenden's three stages of usage?
1.Inconsistent usage ,2.Consistent usage but sometimes misapplied, 3.Consistent usage.
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What was Berko's 'Wug' test?
Children were shown a picture of a strange creature and were told it was called a Wug. They could instinctively create plurals.
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What did Skinner suggest?
Language is just another form of learned behaviour that children learn through positive and negative reinforcement.Children's brains are blank slates.
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What are the problems with Skinner?
Over-correcting can have a bad effect and we are more interested in children's speech being true than grammatically correct. Now largely discredited.
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What did Chomsky suggest?
We are born with a Language Acquisition Device which controls the development of language.
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What is the support for Chomsky?
All children go through similar stages of language development,specific areas in the brain control language.
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What are the problems with Chomsky?
Didn't pay much attention to how children then developed and mostly hypothesised rather than do experiments
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What did Piaget suggest?
Language comes with understanding and children can not articulate concepts they do not understand.
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What are the problems with Piaget?
Evidence of children with severe cognitive problems who manage to use language beyond their actual understanding.
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What did Bruner suggest?
Interactions between child and caregiver are crucial to language development.Proposed the idea of a Languaage Acquisition Support System.
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What is addition in language?
Repetition of certain sounds and structures for a word. Usually so the word becomes consonant-vowel-consonant-vowel.(Dog becomes Doggie)
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What is a reduplicated monosyllable?
When a syllable is repeated for a word (For example, Mama)
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What is Deletion?
When the child deletes a sound in a word (usually the last sound) and swaps other sounds around.
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What is consonant cluster reduction?
When children find consonat clusters difficult to pronoun so reduce them
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What is substitution?
When one sound is swapped for an easier sound.
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What is assimilation?
When some sounds change because of other sounds around them
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What are the stages of learning to write?
1.Drawing and sign writing, 2.Letter-like forms, 3.Copied letters, 4.Child's name and strings of letters, 5.Words, 6.Sentences, 7.Text
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What are the 5 stages of teaching a child to read with phonics?
1.Learning the letter sounds .2.Learning letter formations. 3.Blending. 4.Identifying the sounds in words. 5.Tricky words.
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What is Blending?
Building words form phonemes to read
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What is segmenting?
Breaking down words for spelling
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What is a digraph?
A combination of two letters representing one sound
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What is a trigraph?
A combination of three letters representing one sound
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What is a split digraph?
When a digraph is split by a consonant.
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What is the Look/Say approach?
The child is exposed to written texts with pictorial support and learns to identify the shapes of words as a whole rather than breaking them down.
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What are Frith's stages of reading?
1.Logographic ,2.Alphabetic ,3.Orthographic
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What are Chall's stages of reading?
0-6 years-Pre-reading, 6-7 years-Initial reading/Decoding ,7-8 years-Confirmation and Glueing, 8-14 years-Reading to learn, 14-18 years-Multiple viewpoints, 18+-Construction and Reconstruction.
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What are Kroll's stages of development?
Prepatory stage(approx.4-7), Consolidation stage(approx.7-9) ,Differentiation stage(9+) ,Integration stage(14+)
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What is cognitive awareness in terms of writing?
The knowledge of how words are presented and encoded in written form.
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What is emergent writing?
Signs on a page that children use to represent certain words before they can write.
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What are Barclay's stages of writing?
1.Scribbling, 2.Mock handwriting, 3.Mock letters ,4.Conventional letters, 5.Invented spelling, 6.Approximated or Phonetic spelling, 7.Conventional spelling.
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What are the stages of spelling?
1.Exploration, 2.Semiphonetic, 3.Phonetic, 4.Transitional.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is semantic development?

Back

The acquisitions of meanings associated with words

Card 3

Front

How many words can the child say at each age?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the holophrastic phase?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the two-word stage?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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