child attatchment

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Behaviourist theory * Attachment behaviours towards mother are positively reinforced (breast feeding
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attachment theory bowlby adaptive?
primary caregiver is a safe haven (the child retreats to when anxious) and staying close to them (proximity maintainance) helps the infant survive. The adult also acts as a secure base from which to explore.
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attachment theory bowlby social releasers?
babies are pre-disposed to cry and coo because these trigger innate caring instincts from adults
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attachment theory bowlby critical period?
infant must form an attachment with a consistent care giver between birth and 2 ½ years or they will experience the effects of maternal deprivation or privation resulting in social/emotional/intellectual/physical abnormalities
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bowlby (1944)
on long-term effects of maternal deprivation.
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sample?
44 juvenile thieves compared with 44 controls in a quasi- experiment
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procedure?
Interviewed the parents to identify how long/often they had been separated from primary caregiver during infancy, and used a clinical interview to identify whether they showed signs of affectionless psychopathy.
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results 1?
More than 50% had been separated from primary caregiver for longer than 6mnths before the age of 5yrs, compared to only 2 in the control group.
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results 2?
86% of those with psychopathic traits had been separated from primary caregiver for extended periods of time before age 5.
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conclusion?
Bowlby concluded that separation from primary caregivers before the age of 5 would lead to abnormal emotional development (he termed this affectionless psychopathy) which is related to criminal behaviour
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Monotropy?
The attachment with the mother is more important than other attachments.
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Bushnell et al?
supports monotropy with the mother. Newborns (neonates) are able to differentiate the mother’s face from other faces by visual cues alone. This suggests an area of the brain may have an innate sensitivity to learning the mother’s facial features
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Internal working model?
the child learns how to behave and what to expect in all relationships from their experiences with their primary caregiver
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key research Ainsworth & Bell (1970) sample?
56 white middle-class infants tested from 49-51wks
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method?
controlled observation
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procedure 1?
Stranger tries to engage the child whilst mother is present
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procedure 2?
Mother leaves baby with stranger who tries to comfort the child if anxious
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procedure 3?
Mother returns and stranger leaves
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procedure 4?
Mother leaves again
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procedure 5?
Stranger enters and tries to comfort/ play with child
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procedure 6?
Mother re-enters room and stranger leaves Behaviour is observed through a one-way mirror.
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procedure 7?
The observers coded for proximity seeking, maintaining contact, avoidance, and resistance to comforting using a 7 point scale on intensity of behaviours during the two reunion periods
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procedure 8?
They also coded for exploratory behaviours, searching for the mother, and directed affect (emotional displays): a 1 was assigned at each observation point it was observed, and a 0 when it wasn’t observed in these observation points.
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procedure 9?
Time sampling was used and behaviour was observed every 15s for the 3mins the strange situation procedure lasts (12 observation points).
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results/ conclusions?
There was an increase in crying whenever the mother left, and this did not decrease in the presence of the stranger suggesting only the primary caregiver is a safe haven/ secure base, rather than any adult behaving in sensitive way towards the child
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Observable differences in attachment styles were noted secure?
The majority of infants show separation anxiety when mother leaves, and stranger anxiety only when mother is not present. These children are positive and happy when reunited.
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Observable differences in attachment styles were noted avoidant?
A minority of children show no separation anxiety when the mother leaves and no stranger anxiety. They are not interested in the mother on reunion, and can be comforted by the mother or stranger.
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Observable differences in attachment styles were noted resistance?
A small minority of children show intense separation anxiety when the mother leaves, and intense stranger anxiety even in the presence of the mother.
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resistance 2?
The child maintains proximity and contact with the mother but are resistant to comforting, pushing her away. These infants also explore their environment less.
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application steep aim?
to change parents internal working models formed from their infant attachments, to prevent intergenerational transmission (them parenting their child in a way that promotes insecure attachment)
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steep, procedure 1?
Shown videos of face to face interactions with their infant, taken by the visiting therapist, which allows them to view their parenting behaviour from another perspective, recognise negative behaviours and change them
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what else does the face to face videos show?
recognising parenting accomplishments.
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steep, procedure 2?
The therapist asks open ended questions encouraging self-discovery of positive and negative responses to their child, and what cues from their infant mean
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steep, procedure 3?
Next, their insecure internal working model is explained to them to help them recognise negative beliefs and challenge them
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steep procedure 4?
Finally, sensitive responsiveness to an infant’s needs is modelled to them to help them learn better parenting behaviours
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steep procedure 5?
The therapist considers social context which may be affecting parenting. A support network is put in place to support them in maintaining these behaviours
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steep, procedure 6?
The principle behind this is that the parents’ basic needs must be met before they can respond to their child’s needs (physical needs must be met before love/ belonging needs according to Maslow’s hierarchy)
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suessa (2016)?
compared 78 mother-infant pairs receiving STEEP with 29 mother-infant pairs receiving standard care from the German welfare system in a quasi-experiment
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suessa, procedure?
Attachment was assessed using the strange situation procedure, and a questionnaire, the AAPI, was used to assess mother’s attitudes towards child-rearing, which included questions on lack of empathy toward the needs of children, belief in corporal p
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what was found?
It was found that at-risk infants whose mothers received STEEP were more likely to develop secure attachments and less likely to develop disorganised attachments (the most at risk style)
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second finding?
when measured at 12 and 24mnths than children receiving standard care from the German welfare system. At 24mnths 38.9% of infants showed disorganised attachment styles compared to 13.2% I the STEEP group
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third finding?
Self-reports also showed mothers on the STEEP programme had less risky child rearing attitudes.
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attachment theory bowlby adaptive?

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primary caregiver is a safe haven (the child retreats to when anxious) and staying close to them (proximity maintainance) helps the infant survive. The adult also acts as a secure base from which to explore.

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attachment theory bowlby social releasers?

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attachment theory bowlby critical period?

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Card 5

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bowlby (1944)

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