English Language

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INSTRUMENTAL
change language to get what you want
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REGULATORY
changing language to control others behaviour
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INTERACTIONAL
changing language depending on our relationship with others
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PERSONAL
how we personally speak
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REPRESENTATIONAL
language that achieves information
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IMAGINITIVE
expressing yourself artistically
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HEURISTIC
language used when exploring the environment
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PROTO WORDS
noises that are similar to phonology of language 9-12 months
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LABELLING
naming a person, object, place or event
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REPEATING
echoing something an adult had said - immitation - Skinner
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PRACTICING
using language when adults are absent
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HOLOPHRASTIC
one word stage 12-18 months
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TWO WORD STAGE
two word combinations 18-24 months
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TELEGRAPHIC
three or more words 24-32 months
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POST-TELEGRAPHIC
more grammatically correct 36+
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PHONEMIC EXPANSION
increase of phonology to experiment a new word
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PHONEMIC CONTRACTION
phonology of sound is reduced to the main language
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DELETION
deleting the final consonant
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SUBSTITUTION
replacing one sound for another
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ADDING
adding vowels to the end of a world
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ASSIMILATION
changing a consonant/vowel for another i.e. dog - gog
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REDUPLICATION
repeating a whole syllable i.e. dada/mama
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CONSONANT CLUSTER REDUCTION
spider - pider
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DELETION OF STRESSED SYLLABLES
reducing words to polysyllabic i.e. banana - nana
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POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT
when a behaviour is rewarded
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NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT
when a behaviour is unrewarded
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OVER EXTENSION
a word used to label something is stetched to include sounds that arent in the word
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UNDER EXTENSION
a word used to label is reduced to include only part of its original meaning
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VIRTUOUS ERROR
errors which the non standard utterance reveals some understanding i.e. goed - went
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EMERGENT WRITING
early scribble writing
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ASCENDER
part of the letter goes above the usual heights
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CURSIVE HANDWRITING
when writing is joined
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ORTHOGRAPHY
use of letters and the rules of spelling
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DESCENDER
part of the letter goes below the base line of the usual font
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OMISSION
leaving out part of a word
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ADJACENCY PAIR
dialogue that follows a set pattern
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ALLUSION
when a speaker becomes dirstracted - speaks of something outside of the set dialogue
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ASSIMILATION
words that are pronounced differently to make it easier for the speaker to pronounce
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AUXILARY VERBS
verbs used before the main verb in a sentence i.e. I HAVE seen him
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BABBLING
the production of short vowel/consonant combinations by a baby
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BIDIALECTISM
being able to switch between two forms of speechCDS
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CDS
CHILD DIRECTED SPEECH the way that caregivers talk to children
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COOING
the earliest sounds children are able to make as they experiment moving their lips and tongue
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DETERMINER
a word that goes before a noun to show possession - his, hers, my, mine - children tend to do this
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EGOCENTRIC
the early mental state of a child in which they can only understand things existing in relation to themselves
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EUPHEMISIM
a word/phrase used to substitute for harsher sounding words
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HOLOPHRASE
a single word used to express a complete idea i.e. 'ball' meaning a child wants it
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INTERNALISATION
when a child learning language starts to apply one of the language's rules consistently
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INTONATION
the pitch of a speaker's voice
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LAD
LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE - the innate ability for language - chomsky
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LASS
LANGUAGE ACQUISITION SUPPORT SYSTEM - the system of support from caregivers to children that helps them to acquire language - Bruner
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PHONOLOGY
the study of the sound systems of languages, in particular the patterns of sounds
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PROSODY
non verbal aspects of speech like pace, stress, pitch, intonation, volume and pauses
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SIMPLIFICATION
when a child learning to speak drops consonants or clusters to make words easier to pronounce
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uptalk
when the intonation rises at the end of speech
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BRUNER
interactional - children learn through the input of their carers
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SKINNER
immitation - children learn through immitation of adults
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CHOMSKY
nativist - children are born with the ability of language
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PIAGET
heauristic - children develop their linguistic competence alongside their ability to understand the world around them
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LENNEBERG
critical period - children have a liited period that their language can develop
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FRICATIVE
a group of consonants produced by forcing air through lips or teeth
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AMELIORATION
a word that takes on a more positive meaning
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PEJORATION
a word that takes on a more negative meaning
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WEAKENING
a word that loses the strength of its original meaning
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NARROWING
a word becomes more specific in its meaning
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BROADENING
a word keeps its original meaning but acquires others
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CLIPPING
a shortened version of a word becomes a word in its own right i.e. telephone - phone
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BORROWING
when words from one language fall into common usage in another
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COINING
term for the creation of new words
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DESCRIPTIVISM
an opinion that no use of language is incorrect
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PRESCRIPTIVISM
the opinion that there should be only one way of speaking
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DIALECT
how a person speaks
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ARTICLE
'the' - definite 'a' - indefinite
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ARCHAISM
an old fashioned word or phrase
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ASSONANCE
lOw smOky hOles - when the main vowel of two or more words are used close together
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COMPOUND
a new word created by combining two or more existing words
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CONTRACTION
when a word thats formed by shortening and combining two words i.e. can't, might've
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DEIXIS
reference to something outside the text/speech
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DISCOURSE
piece of written or spoken language
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FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE
metaphors and similies
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NEOLOGISMS
new words that enter a language
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POLITICAL CORRECTNESS
avoiding using language or ideas that might be offensive to certain groups of people
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RECEIVED PRONOUNCIATION
an accent traditionally associated with educated people and upper class
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

changing language to control others behaviour

Back

REGULATORY

Card 3

Front

changing language depending on our relationship with others

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

how we personally speak

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

language that achieves information

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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