chemisty C1

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what's crude oil a mixture of?
hydrocarbons
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what's fractional distillation?
using the fact that different hydrocarbons have different boiling points to seperate fractions of it and make more useful hydrocarbons.
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describe a fractional distilation columns process?
low boiling points leave at the top, high boiling points leave at the bottom.
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what is made from naptha in cracking?
petrol
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what does cracking require?
catalyst, high pressure and high temperature
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what does cracking do?
break down large alkane molecules into smaller, more useful alkane and alkene molecules
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describe the forces between molecules in a hydrocarbon?
strong covelant bonds between the atoms and weak intermolecular forces between molecules
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the intermolecular forces betewen longer hydrocarbons are what than between shorted hydrocarbons
stronger
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whats the equation for complete combustion?
hydrocan + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water
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whats the equation for incomplete combustion?
hydrogarbon + oxygen =carbon (monoxide) + water
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what colour does limewater go when carbon dioxide is present?
milky
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what are the advantages of complete combustion?
less soot, more heat energy and no carbon monoxide.
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what is the composition of clean, dry air?
78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% other gases incl. 0.035% carbon dioxide
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how does respiration and combustion help to maintain the atmospheres composition?
it decreases oxygen and increases carbon dioxide
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how does photosynthesis help to maintain the atmospheres composition?
takes in carbon dioxide and releases oxygen
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what did the earliest atmosphere contain?
ammonia and carbon dioxide
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whens sulfur dioxide made?
when fossil fuels containing sulfur impurities burn.
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what does acid rain do?
kills plants and aquatic life. erodes stonework and corrodes iron work.
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carbon monoxide
poisunos gas formed from incomplete combustion in car engines
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oxides of nitrogen
formed in car engines, causing photochemical smog and acid rain.
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what does burning of fossil fuels do?
increase the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
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what does deforestation do?
means less photosynthesis and less removing of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
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what does increase in world popluation do?
directly contributes to deforestation and using more fossil fuels
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what do catalytic converters do?
contain catalysts to help poluting chemicals in car engines to react with oxygen. less harmful gases like carbon dioxide are released instead.
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what is an alkane?
contains only single covelant bonds and are saturated.
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what is an alkene?
have at least one double bond and is therefore unsaturated
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how can you test for saturation?
to test weather it's alkane or alkene you must use an addition reaction and add bromine water to the substance.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

what's fractional distillation?

Back

using the fact that different hydrocarbons have different boiling points to seperate fractions of it and make more useful hydrocarbons.

Card 3

Front

describe a fractional distilation columns process?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what is made from naptha in cracking?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what does cracking require?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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DEENO008

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really good if you are going through GCSE year. This helped me out quite a bit :)

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