Chemistry:C2 PART1

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C2P1/3.What is an ion?
An ion is where an atom becomes a charged species by gaining or loosing electrons
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C2P1/4.What is metallic bonding?
Metal bonding is where there is a strong electrostatic forces of attraction between the delocalised electrons and the positive ions. This is why metal have a high mp/bp.
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C2P1/5.What can delocalised electrons do?
Move freely throughout the whole structure
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C2P1/6.How are delocalised electrons arranged?
In a regular pattern to forma giant metallic structure
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C2P1/7.List properties that metals have
Hard,Shiny,Malleble,Ductile,Strong,Loose electrons to form positive ions,High melting point
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C2P1/8.Name the properties of diamond
Extreme hardness,High melting point of 3550
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C2P1/9.Why does Diamond have a high melting and boiling point?
Each carbon atom is bonded to another carbon atom with 4X strong covalent bonds.A lot of energy has to be put in to break its structure which is why it has a high mp/bp. Diamond also has a macromolecular structure
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C2P1/10.Can diamond conduct electricity?
No because it has no charged particles that are free to move
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C2P1/11.Does graphite have a high mp/bp?
Graphite also has as high mp/bp due to being bonded by strong covalent bonds,however each carbon is joined top only 3 others
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C2P1/12.Can graphite conduct electricity?
Because each Carbon is only bonded to another 3, each carbon atom provides 1 electron that is free to move through the structure which means graphite can conduct electricity as well as heat
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C2P1/13.Describe the structure of Graphite
Graphite's structure is layered and although it has a high mp/bp due to strong covalent bonds it has a weak intermolecular forces between its layers so they can slide over one another.
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C2P1/14.Why is diamond and graphite allotropes of carbon
Made out of carbon but different structures
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C2P1/15.Why are alloys harder than metals?
-Alloys contain atoms of different sizes-The different atom sizes in [metal] distort the regular arrangements of atoms -Makes it more difficult for the layers to slide over each other therefore-it is harder than pure metal
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C2P1/16.What are fullerenes?
Fullerenes are a type of carbon based on hexagonal rings of carbon atoms
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C2P1/17.How can you use fullerenes?
-They are hollow so scientists have discovered how to cage radioactive metal atoms and drug molecules inside fullerenes.-Can be used to deliver drugs into the body-Can be delivered to their targets without damaging normal cells
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C2P1/18.What are thermosetting polymers?
-Can't be remoulded and thus can't be recycled-This is because they cross links between each polymer chain-This holds and locks the chains into position by a strong covalent bond
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C2P1/19.What are thermosoftening polymers?
-These chains can uncoil and slide past each other making the material flexible-Forces of attraction between the separate polymer chains are weak
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C2P1/20.What are isotopes?
Atoms of the same element which have different numbers of neutrons
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C2P1/21.Describe how gas chromatography works
-An inert gas is the mobile phase and a column containing a solid is the stationary phase//1.The sample to be separated is heated and evaporated 2.The carrier gas pushes the mixture of vapours through the column containing the stationary phase 3.The
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C2P1/22.How can you use chromatography to check for drunk driving?
To measure the exact concentration of alcohol in the urine
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C2P1/23.In chromatography what is the mobile and stationary phase?
Mobile=Water Stationary=Paper
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C2P1/24.What does gas chromatography show?
-How many different things in mixture-Quantity of each thing
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C2P1/25.What is retention time?
The time in which a substance takes to reach the detector
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C2P1/26.What does a Mass Spectrometry show?
-Molar mass-Identify each part
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C2P1/27.What is the peak furthest on the right?
The molecular ion it tells us the relative formula mass of the compound
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C2P1/28.What are the advantages of instrumental method?
Accurate,Sensitive and Quick
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C2P1/29.What is a yield?
Yield of a substance is how much there is of it after a chemuical reaction
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C2P1/30.What is theoretical yield?
The mass product expected if the reaction goes exactly shown in the balance equation
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C2P1/31.What is the actual yield?
This is the mass off prodcut we actually obtained after the reaction has been purified and dried
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C2P1/32.What is the percentage yield?
This the actual yield expressed as a percentage of the theoretical yield
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C2P1/33.How do you calculate percentage yield?
Actual Yield/Theo Yield X 100
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C2P1/34.State some facts about nanoparticles
-They are tiny particles made up of a few hundred atoms-They measure between about 1 nanometre and 100 nanometre across-Too small to see with a microscope
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Card 2

Front

C2P1/4.What is metallic bonding?

Back

Metal bonding is where there is a strong electrostatic forces of attraction between the delocalised electrons and the positive ions. This is why metal have a high mp/bp.

Card 3

Front

C2P1/5.What can delocalised electrons do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

C2P1/6.How are delocalised electrons arranged?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

C2P1/7.List properties that metals have

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Preview of the front of card 5
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