Chemistry Words

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  • Created by: Holly
  • Created on: 25-03-13 23:12
Isotopes
Atoms with the same number of Protons but different number of Neutrons
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Molecules
Groups of 2 or more atoms bonded together
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Element
Contains one type of atom
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Compound
Contains 2 or more types of atoms (Chemically bonded together)
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Alkane
A hydrocarbon that has only single bonds. It is a saturated hydrocarbon.
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Alloy
A mixture of different metals. Bronze, brass, duralumin are some typical examples of alloys.
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Atom
The smallest particle that can be recognised as being an element. If you break an atom into its smaller pieces (protons, neutrons and electrons) you can no longer identify a particular element.When joined together by chemical bonds they make molecule
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Base
A substance that will neutralise an acid is called a base. When an acid reacts with a base, a salt and water is formed. If a base is soluble in water, it is called an alkali.
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Carbon dioxide
This is a slightly acidic gas that is formed whn carbon burns in air (or oxygen).To test for the gas, bubble it into limewater. A milky white precipitate shows that the gas is carbon dioxide.
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Carbon monoxide
It is a toxic gas. It can be removed from the exhaust gases of cars by the use of a catalytic converter.
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Cast iron
This is iron as it comes out of the blast furnace. It contains around 4% carbon and so is brittle. Some of the carbon is removed as th cast iron is converted to steel.
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Catalytic converter
This is a device fitted to the exhaust pipe of a car in order to convert the harmful gases into less harmful ones.
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Chromatography
Literally means coloured writing, it is a technique used to separate coloured materials.
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Combustion
This is a scientific word for the burning of a fuel.
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Compound
A substance conatining two or more different kinds of atoms chemicaly joined together.
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Decomposition
A reaction where one substance breaks down into two or more new substances. An example of a decomposition is heating calcium carbonate to produce calcium oxide and carbon dioxide
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Density
The mass of a body divided by its volume. Something has a high density of it is heavy but only small.
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Diffusion
Particles spread out and mix. This occurs in both gases and liquids but goes faster in gases.
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Displacement reaction
Sometimes called a “reactivity series reaction” this is where a reactive metal takes the place of an unreactive one in a compound.
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Distillation
A liquid is separated from its solution by heating it so that the liquid evaporates and then cooling the vapour so that it condenses somewhere else.
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Electrolysis
The chemical change that is brought about by passing electricity through a substance. The substance must be ionic and either molten or in aqueous solution.
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Electron
An atomic particle of very small mass (1/1840 of the mass of a proton) and a charge of one minus. It is found in an atom in shells or orbits surrounding the nucleus but not part of the nucleus.
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Element
This is a substance that is composed of only one kind of atom. All the atoms in an element are the same. A chemical reaction cannot break an element into anything simpler.
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Fraction
A set of hydrocarbons with similar boiling points that is produced by the fractional distillation of crude oil.
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Fractionating column
Used in the fractional distillation of crude oil. It is hotter at the bottom. Crude oil is heated to form a vapour which is then passed in at the bottom of the fractionating tower.
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Hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon is a chemical that contains ONLY hydrogen atoms and carbon atoms.The main source of hydrocarbons is crude oil.The hydrocarbons in crude oil are separated by fractional distillation into groups that have similar boiling points.
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Hydrogen
This gas is produced when a metal reacts with an acid. Hydrogen gas has a very low density. It burns with a squeeky pop. This is the test for hydrogen.
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Ion
An atom or group of atoms that has gained or lost one or more elecrons.
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Limestone
A form of sedimentary rock. It is made from the compacted bony remains of dead sea creatures. It is mostly calcium carbonate.
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Neutralisation
A reaction where an acid "cancels out" an alkali.
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Oxidation
A reaction in which oxygen is added to a substance. For every oxidation, there is always a reduction (something losing oxygen) of some kind.
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Ore
A substance that can be used as a source of a metal.
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Physical change
An example would be dissolving salt in water. The change can be reversed simply by eveporating the water.
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Porous
Porous rocks have tiny holes in them that can soak up water or other liquids. Crude oil is found soaked into porous rocks.
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Precipitate
An insoluble solid which is formed when two solutions react together.
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Reduction
The removal of oxygen from a substance. This is the main process when metals are extracted from their ores.The addition of one or more electrons, especially in terms of an electrode reaction during electrolysis.
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Reversible change
A change that can be undone fairly easily. Often called a physical change or a temporary change.
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Rust
When iron reacts with water and oxygen, rust is formed. Chemically it could be called hydrated iron oxide.
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Saturated
Saturated solutions cannot dissolve any more solute at that temperature.
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Slaked lime
Calcium hydroxide, it is made by adding a limited amount of water to quicklime (calcium oxide). It can be used as a soil additive to reduce the acidity of soil.
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Smelting
The extraction of a metal from its ore.
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Transition metal
One of the metals from the central block of the periodic table. High melting and boiling points, high density and usually form coloured compounds. They are often active as catalysts too.
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Universal indicator
This is a mixture of indicators which shows the strength of an acid or alkali as well as simply showing which it is.
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Independent variable
The variable that is adjusted to change the conditions of the experiment so that we can find out the value of the dependent variable.
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Dependent variable
The one we find out about. Its value depends on the value of the variable that we adjust.
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Fixed variable
A factor that could have been changed but we decided to hold constant in order to make the experiment a fair test.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Groups of 2 or more atoms bonded together

Back

Molecules

Card 3

Front

Contains one type of atom

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Contains 2 or more types of atoms (Chemically bonded together)

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A hydrocarbon that has only single bonds. It is a saturated hydrocarbon.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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