Chemistry Unit 3

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  • Created by: jenni2906
  • Created on: 12-05-15 18:54
What colour does the flame go for lithium?
Crimson
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What colour does the flame go for calcium?
Red
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What colour does the flame go for barium?
Green
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What can you do to make the yield better?
Insulate beaker to reduce energy loss.
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Describe the halogens.
Less reactive, higher melting and boiling points down the group. Form ionic bonds with metals.
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What is the equation for the Haber Process?
N2 + 3H2 = 2NH3
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What are the conditions for the Haber Process?
450 degrees. 200 atmospheres. Iron catalyst.
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What are the formulas for the titration reactions?
Concentration = number of moles divided by volume. Number of moles = mass divided by relative formula mass.
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What is the Haber Process?
Higher temperature to reduce equilibrium yield and lower temperature rate.
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Describe titration.
Acid in conical flask. Volume is measured with pipette. Indicator in conical flask. Sodium hydroxide in burette. White tile under conical flask. Slow addition of alkali from burette and mix after each addition. Measure the volume of acid added.
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What does chlorine do in water?
Prevents disease, can be poisonous.
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What is the test for chloride?
Acidify with nitric acid. Add silver nitrate. White precipitate is formed.
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What is the test for magnesium not aluminium?
Add sodium hydroxide. Aluminium ions would re-dissolve.
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Why does sodium chloride solution need to be passed through ion exchange column?
To replenish sodium ions in resin.
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What happens if temp is low in ammonia reaction?
Yield from the exothermic reaction increases.
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Why is ammonia best produced with high pressure?
This will favour the reaction that produces the least number of molecules.
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How are the elements arranged in the periodic table?
Elements are in order of number of electrons because number of energy levels is the number of period because the number of electrons in the outer energy level is the group number.
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What is ethanoic acid produced by?
Oxidation of ethanol.
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How is equilibrium achieved?
When the rate of the forward reaction is the same as the rate of the backward reaction.
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How can you test for chloride ions?
They are cause a white precipitate without low sodium salt.
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Hydrogen used as fuel?
More energy released in bond making so reaction with oxygen releases energy.
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Why is iodine less reactive than bromine?
Iodine is bigger so forces are weaker so the outer electron gained less easily.
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How is scale formed?
Hydrogencarbonate decomposes forming a scale of insoluble calcium carbonate. Scale reduces the effieciecy of heating element.
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What are the problems with sodium hydoxide?
It damages skin and must be diluted.
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How can you make sure an experiment is accurate?
Repeat experiment or improve or check repeatability.
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How can you reduce energy loss?
Use a lid.
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What is the energy level diagram if the reaction is exothermic?
Energy level of products is less than energy level of reactants.
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What is the energy level diagram if the reaction is endothermic?
Energy level of products is more than energy level of reactants.
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How is limescale formed?
Sodium carbonate ions react with calcium ions forming a precipitate of calcium carbonate because water is softened because calcium ions removed which causes hardness in water.
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What happens in a water filter?
There is sodium in the ion exchange resin. Water is softened. Ions take the place of calcium ions that cause hardness in water.
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What is the formula for alcohols?
C2nH2n+1OH
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What bonds does ethanol have in its molecule?
Covalent.
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What is the test for carbon dioxide and carbonates?
Add limewater - turns cloudy.
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What is the test for halide ions - chlorine, bromide, and iodide.
White precipitate - silver chloride. Cream precipitate - silver bromide. Yellow precipitate - silver iodide.
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What is the test for sulphate ions?
Add dilute HCl, followed by barium chloride solution, forms white precipitate.
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What is the functional group for carboxylic acids?
-COOH
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What is the functional group for esters?
-COO
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What colour does the flame go for calcium?

Back

Red

Card 3

Front

What colour does the flame go for barium?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What can you do to make the yield better?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Describe the halogens.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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