chemistry unit 2 definitions

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  • Created by: charlie
  • Created on: 11-02-14 22:12
hydrocarbon
organic compounds contain only carbon and hydrogen
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saturated hydrocarbon
only single bonds
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unsaturated hydrocarbon
carbon-to-carbon multiple bonds
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aliphatic hydrocarbon
carbon atoms joined together in straight or branched chains
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alicyclic hydrocarbon
carbon atoms joined together in a ring structure
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functional group
part of organic molecule responsible for its chemical reactions
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homologous series
series of organic compounds with same functional group but with each successive member differing by CH2
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alkanes
homologous series with formula CnH2n+2
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general formula
simplest formula for a member of homologous series
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structural formula
minimal detail for arrangement of atoms in a molecule
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skeletal formula
simplified organic formula, hydrogen atoms removed from alkyl chains leaving carbon skeleton and associated functional groups
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structural isomers
molecules with same molecular formula but with different structural arrangement of atoms
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stereoisomers
compounds with same structural formula but with different arrangement of the atoms in space
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mechanism
sequence of steps showing the path taken by electrons in a reaction
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alkene formula
CnH2n
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alcohol formula
CnH2n+1OH
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stereoisomers - Cis - Z
both hydrogens together attached to carbon atom in double bond (sisters)
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stereoisomers - Trans - E
both hydrogens opposite each other attached to canon atom in double bond
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crude oils
fossil fuel containing natural decay of plants and animals (mixture of HC's)
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substitution reaction steps
1) INITIATION 2)PROPAGATION 3)TERMINATION
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electrophilic addition of alkenes
addition reaction where electrophile is attracted to electron-rich centre or atom, where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
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Hess' law
enthalpy change is independent of path taken, reaction takes place by more than one route, initial and final condition the same
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Enthalpy
a measure of the heat content of substance at constant pressure
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standard enthalpy conditions
pressure: 1 atmosphere, temperature: 25 degrees c
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standard enthalpy change of combustion
enthalpy change when 1 mole of a substance undergoes complete combustion under standard conditions, all R + P in standard states
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standard enthalpy change of formation
enthalpy change when 1 mole of a compound is formed in its standard state from its elements in their standard states.
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enthalpy of neutralisation
enthalpy change when 1 mole of water formed from its ions in dilute solution
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bond dissociation
energy required to break 1 mole of gaseous bonds to form gaseous atoms
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green chemistry: sustainability
development of processes that prevent depletion of natural resources
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

saturated hydrocarbon

Back

only single bonds

Card 3

Front

unsaturated hydrocarbon

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

aliphatic hydrocarbon

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

alicyclic hydrocarbon

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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