Chemistry Unit 2: Basic Concepts and Hydrocarbons

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Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen only.
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Saturated Hydrocarbon
A saturated hydrocarbon is a hydrocarbon with single bonds only.
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Unsaturated hydrocarbon
An unsaturated hydrocarbon is a hydrocarbon containing carbon-to-carbon multiple bonds.
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Aliphatic Hydrocarbon
An aliphatic hydrocarbon is a hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in straight or branched chains.
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Alicyclic Hydrocarbon
An alicyclic hydrocarbon is a hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in a ring structure.
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Functional Group
A fuctional group is the part of the organic molecule responsible for its chemical reactions.
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Homologous Series
A homologous series is a series of organic compounds with the same functional group but with each successive memeber differing by CH2.
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Alkanes
Alkanes are the homologous series witht the general formula C(n)H(2n+2).
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Alkyl Group
An alkyl group is an alkane with a hydrogen atom removed.
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Strucural Isomers
Structural isomers are molecules with the same molecular formula but with different structural arrangements of atoms.
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Stereoisomers
Stereoisomers are compounds with the same structural formula, but with a different arrangement of the atoms in space.
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E/Z Isomerism
E/Z isomerism is a type of stereoisomerism in which different groups attached to each carbon of a C=C double bond may be arranged differently in space because of the restricted rotation of the C=C bond.
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E Isomer
The elements with the highest atomic number are on the same side.
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Z Isomer
The elements with the highest atomic number are on the same side.
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Homolytic Fission
Homolytic fission is the breaking of a covalent bond, with one of the bonded electrons going to each atom, forming two radicals.
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Radical
A radical is a species with an unpaired electron.
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Heterolytic Fission
Heterolytic fission is the breaking of a covalent bond with both of the bonded electrons going to one of the atoms, forming a cation (+ion) and an anion (-ion).
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Nucleophile
A nucleophile is an atom (or group of atoms) that is attracted to an electron-deficient centre or atom, where it donates a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond.
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Electrophile
An Electrophile is an atom (or group of atoms) that is attracted to an electron-rich centre or atom, where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond.
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Addition Reaction
An addition reaction is a reaction in which a reactant is added to an unsaturated molecule to make a saturated molecule. It has 2 reactants and makes 1 product.
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Substitution Reaction
A substitution reaction is a reaction in which an atom or group of atoms is replaced with a different atom or group of atoms. It has 2 reactants and makes 2 products.
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Elimination Reaction
An elimination reaction refers to the removal of a molcule from a saturated molecule from a saturated molecule to make an unsaturated molecule. It has 1 reactant and makes 2 products.
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Fractional Distillation
Fractional distillation is the seperation of the components in a liquid mixture into fractions which differ in boiling point (and hence chemical composition) by means of distillation, typically using a fractionating column.
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Cracking
Cracking refers to the breaking down of long-chained saturated hydrocarbons to form a mixture of shorter-chained alkanes and alkenes.
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Catalyst
A catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being used up in the process.
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Radical Substitution
Radical substitution is a type of substitution reaction in which a radical replaces a different atom or group of atoms.
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Mechanism
Mechanism is a sequence of steps showing the path taken by electrons in a reaction.
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Initiation
Initation is the first step in a radical substitution in which the free radicals are generated by ultraviolet radiation.
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Propagation
Propagation is the two repeated steps in radical substitution that build up the products in a chain reaction.
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Termanation
Termanation is the step at the end of a radical substitution when two radicals combine to form a molecule.
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π-bond
A pi-bond is the reactive part of a double bond formed above and below the plane of the bonded atoms by sideways overlap of p-orbitals.
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Electrophilic Addition
Electrophilic addition is a type of addition reaction in which an electrophile is attracted to an electron-rich centre or atom, where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond.
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Carbocation
Carbocation is an organic ion in which a carbon atom has a positive charge.
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Curly Arrow
A curly arrow is a symbol used in reaction mechanisms to show the movement of an electron pair in the breaking or formation of a covalent bond.
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Polymer
A polymer is a long molecular chain built up from monomer units.
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Monomer
A monomer is a small molecule that combines with many other monomers to form a polymer.
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Addition Polymerisation
Addition polymerisation is the process in which unsaturated alkene molecules (monomers) add on to a growing polymer chain one at a time, to form a very long saturated molecular chain (the addition polymer).
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Addition Polymer
An addition polymer is a very long molecular chain, formed by repeated addition reactions of many unsaturated alkene molecules (monomers).
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Repeat Unit
A repeat unnit is a specific arrangement of atoms that occurs in the structure over and over again.
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Biodegradable Material
Biodegradable material is a material that is broken down naturally in the enviroment by living organisms.
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Card 2

Front

A saturated hydrocarbon is a hydrocarbon with single bonds only.

Back

Saturated Hydrocarbon

Card 3

Front

An unsaturated hydrocarbon is a hydrocarbon containing carbon-to-carbon multiple bonds.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

An aliphatic hydrocarbon is a hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in straight or branched chains.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

An alicyclic hydrocarbon is a hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in a ring structure.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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