Chemistry Unit 2: Alcohols, Halogenoalkanes and Analysis

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Volatility
Volatility is the ease that a liquid turns into a gas. Volatility increases as boiling point decreases.
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Reflux
Reflux is the continual boiling and condensing of a reaction mixture to ensure that the reaction takes place without the contents of the flask boiling dry.
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Esterification
Esterification is the reaction of an alcohol with a carboxulic acid to produce an ester and water.
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Dehydration
Dehydration is an elemination reaction in which water is removed from a saturated molecule to make an unsaturated molecule. In an elemination reaction 1 molecule becomes 2 molecules.
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Hydrolysis
Hydrolysis is a reaction with water or aqueous hydroxide ions that breaks a chemical compound into two compounds.
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Nucleophilic Substitution
Nucleophilic substitution is a type of substitution reaction in which a nucleophile is attracted to an electron-deficient centre or atom, where it donates a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond.
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CFC
CFCs are chlorofluorocarbons.
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Limiting Reagent
A limiting reagent is the substance in a chemical reaction that runs out first.
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Atom Economy
The atom economy formula is: [(Molecular mass of the desired product)/(Sum of molecular masses of all products)]*100
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Molecular Ion, M+
Molecular ion, M+ is the positive ion formed in mass spectrometry when a molecule loses an electron.
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Fragmentation
Fragmentation is the process in mass spectrometry that causes a positive ion to split into pieces, one of which is a positive fragment ion.
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Radical
A radical is a species with an unpaired electron.
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Electrophile
An electrophile is an electron pair acceptor.
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Nucleophile
A nucleophile is an electron pair donor.
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Card 2

Front

Reflux is the continual boiling and condensing of a reaction mixture to ensure that the reaction takes place without the contents of the flask boiling dry.

Back

Reflux

Card 3

Front

Esterification is the reaction of an alcohol with a carboxulic acid to produce an ester and water.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Dehydration is an elemination reaction in which water is removed from a saturated molecule to make an unsaturated molecule. In an elemination reaction 1 molecule becomes 2 molecules.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Hydrolysis is a reaction with water or aqueous hydroxide ions that breaks a chemical compound into two compounds.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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