Chemistry Unit 1 Revision Cards

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  • Created by: Alisha
  • Created on: 30-06-14 21:48
Atomic Orbital
A region of space around an atomic nucleus where there is a high probability of finding an electron
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Ionization Energy
The energy required to remove one mole of electrons from a mole of isolated gaseous atoms or ions
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Energy Level
The possible locations around an atom where electrons having specific energy values may be found
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Molecular Ions
In mass spectroscopy this is a molecule of the sample which has been ionized but which hasn't broken up during its flight through the instrument
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Relative Abundance
Abundance of a species divided by the total abundance of all the species combined
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Ionization (MS)
Beam of electrons from an electron gun knocks out electrons from atoms.molecules to form positive ions, usually lose only 1 electron
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Acceleration (MS)
Positive ions attracted towards negatively charged plates and accelerate at high speed. the speed they reach depends on mass - lighter ions go faster.
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Deflection (MS)
Beam of ions move into magnetic field at right angles to its direction of travel. The field deflects the beam of ions into an arc of a circle. The deflection of an ion depends on the m/z value and magnetic field strength.
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Detection (MS)
Magnetic field is gradually increased so that ions of increasing mass enter the detector one after another. Ions strike the detector accept electrons, lost their charge and create current which is proportional to the abundance of each ion
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Mass Spectroscopy
Instrumental method for identifying chemical constitution of a substance by means of separation of gaseous ions according to their differing mass and charge
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Isotope
Atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
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Mass Number
Number of protons + number of neutrons
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Atomic Number (proton number)
Number of protons
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Electrostatic Force
The forces of attraction between electrically charged particles
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Nuclear force
The force that holds protons and neutrons together within the nucleus
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Electrons
Sub atomic particles which surround the nucleus, has a relative mass of 1/1840 and a relative charge of -1.
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Protons
Subatomic particle in the nucleus that has a relative mass of 1 and a relative charge of +1
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Neutrons
Subatomic particle in the nucleus that has a relative mass of 1 and a relative charge of 0
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Relative Atomic Mass
The average mass per atom of the naturally occurring form of an element to one-twelfth the mass of an atom of carbon-12.
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Relative Molecular Mass
The average mass of a molecule to one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12
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Relative formula mass
Used for ionic compounds as they don't form molecules - the average mass of a entity to one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12
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Avogadro constant
The total number of particles in a mole of substance (6.022x10^23)
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Mole
A quantity of substance that contains the Avogadro constant number of particles
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The Ideal gas equation
pV=nRT
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Empirical Formula
The simpliest whole number ratio in which the atoms in a compound combine together
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Molecular formula
A formula that tells us the numbers of atoms of each different element that make up a molecule of a compound
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Combustion analysis
A method for determining the chemical composition of a compound by burning the compound under controlled conditions
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Equation for concentration/volume/moles
M= C x V
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Equation for Mass/ Mr/ Moles
Mass = Mr x Mole
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Ionic Equation
Chemical Equation for a reaction which only lists those ions participating in the equation
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Titration
Method of determining the concentration of a substance in a solution by adding it to a standard reagent of a known concentration in carefully measured amounts
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Atom economy (%)
Mass of desired product/ total mass of reactants x 100
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The yield of a chemical reaction
The number of moles of a specified product/ theoretical maximum number of moles of the product x 100
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Ionic Bond
A chemical bond in which an electron or electrons are transferred from one atom to another resulting in formation of oppositely charged ions with electrostatic forces of attraction between them
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Covalent Bond
Chemical bond in which electrons are shared between to atoms
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Metallic bond
Chemical bond in which outer electrons are spread over a lattice of metal ions in a delocalised system
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Lattice
A regular arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules
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Co-ordinate/dative bonding
Covalent bonding in which both the electrons in the bond come from one of the atoms in the bond
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Lone Pair
A pair of electrons in the outer shell of an atom that aren't involved in bonding
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Electronegativity
The power of an atom to attract the electrons in a covalent bond
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Electron density
The probability of an electron being found in a particular volume of space
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Polar
Describes a molecule in which the charge isn't symmetrically distributed so that one area is slightly positively charged and the other slightly negatively charged
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Delocalised
Describes electrons which are spread over several atoms
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Malleable
Can be beaten into shape
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Ductile
Can be pulled into thin wires
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Van Der Waals
A type of IMF of attraction that is caused by instantaneous dipoles and acts between all molecules
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Dipole-Dipole force
An IMF that results from the attraction between molecules with permanent dipoles
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Hydrogen Bonding
A type of IMF in which a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to an electronegative atom interacts with another electronegative atom
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Solid
A substance having a definite shape and volume
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Liquid
State of matter which can flow, take the shape of its container and is in compressible
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Gas
States of matter which can take the shape of its container, can be compressed and has a low density
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Fusion
Liquefying/melting by applying heat
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Enthalpy Change
A measure of heat energy given out or taken in when a chemical or physical change occurs at a constant temperature
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Vaporization
Boiling
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Giant ionic crystals
consists of a lattice of positive ions each surrounded in a regular arrangement by negative ions and vice versa
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Metallic crystals
Regular lattice of positive ions held together by a sea of delocalised electrons
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Simple molecular crystals
Small molecules strongly held together by covalent bonding. the forces of attraction between molecules (IMF) are much weaker
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Macromolecular Crystals
Large numbers of atoms linked in a regular 3D arrangement by covalent bonds e.g. diamond
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Allotropes
Made of the same element but have different structures therefore different physical properties
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Intermolecular Force
Forces existing between molecules
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Electron Pair repulsion theory
A theory which explains the shape of simple molecules by assuming that pairs of electrons around a central atom repel each other and take up positions as far away from each other in space
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Metalloid
A non-metallic element with some metal properties
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s,p,d or f block
Elements which have their highest energy electrons in s/p/d/f orbitals are in the s/p/d/f block
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Group
Vertical column of elements
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Period
Horizontal row of elements
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Periodicity
The regular recurrence of the properties of elements when they are arranged in atomic number order as in the periodic table
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Atomic Radii
Size of the atom, measured by taking half the distance between the centre of a pair of atoms
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First Ionisation Energy
Energy required to convert a mole of isolated gaseous atoms into a mole of singly charged gaseous ions i.e. to remove one electron from each atom
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Organic Compounds
Compounds containing carbon
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Displayed formula
Shows every atom and bond in a molecule
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Structural formula
Shows the unique arrangement of atoms in a molecule in a simplified form
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Nomenclature
The system we use for naming compounds
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Root
Tells us the longest unbranched hydrocarbon
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preffix/suffix
Describes the changes that have been made to the root molecule
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Functional group
An atom or group of atoms which replaces hydrogen in an organic compound and that defines the structure and properties of the family
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Homologous Series
Family of organic compounds with the same functional group but different carbon chain length
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Structural Isomerism
Have the same molecular formula but different structural formula
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Positional isomerism
Same functional groups attached to the main chain at different points
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Functional group isomerism
Functional groups are different
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Chain isomerism
A different arrangement of the hydrocarbon chain (e.g. branched)
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Alkane
Saturated hydrocarbon that contain only hydrogen-carbon and carbon- carbon single bonds
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Saturated
Contains maximum number of hydrogen atoms and only single bonds between carbon atoms
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Ring alkanes
Hydrocarbon with a saturated ring, have the general formula CnH2n because the end hydrogens aren't needed
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Branched chains
Side chains coming off the main chain (one with the most C atoms)
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Crude Oil
unrefined petroleum
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Fractional distillation
Seperation of crude oil by heating and collecting the fractions that boil over different temperature ranges, the fractions are a mixture of hydrocarbons of a similar chain length
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Thermal Cracking
Shortening hydrocarbon chains by heating at a high temperatureand pressure until the C-C bonds break heterolytically. The unpaired electrons are free radicals which react to form shorter chain molecules
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Catalytic Cracking
Shortening alkane chains at a lower temperature and pressure using a zeolite catalyst
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Combustion
Burning, complete combustion of hydrocarbons produces CO2 and H2O
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Incomplete combustion
Burnt in a limited supply of O2 which produces carbon monoxide (or soot) and water
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Acid Rain
Rain that contains a high concentration of pollutants mostly SO2 and NOx released into the atmosphere by burning fossil fuels
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Catalytic converter
Honeycomb made of ceramic material coasted in platinum (catalyst) which reduce the output of CO and NO and unburnt hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas mixture
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Global warming
An increase in the average temperature believed to be caused by the greenhouse effect.
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Greenhouse Gas
Gases whose absorption of solar radition is responsible for the greenhouse effect
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The energy required to remove one mole of electrons from a mole of isolated gaseous atoms or ions

Back

Ionization Energy

Card 3

Front

The possible locations around an atom where electrons having specific energy values may be found

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

In mass spectroscopy this is a molecule of the sample which has been ionized but which hasn't broken up during its flight through the instrument

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Abundance of a species divided by the total abundance of all the species combined

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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