Chemistry Unit 1 Module 2 Electrons, bonding and structure

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Electron Shielding
Is the repulsion between electrons in different inner shells. Shielding reduces the net attractive force from the positive nucleus on the outer-shell electrons.
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Successive Ionisation Energies
Are a measure of the nergy required to remove each electron in turn.
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First Ionisation Energy (1st I.E.)
The energy required to remove one electron from each atom in one mole of gaseous atoms to form 1 mole of gaseous 1+ ions.
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Second Ionisation Energy
The energy required to remove one electron from each ion in 1 mole of gaseous 1+ ions to form 1 mole of gaseous 2+ ions.
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A Shell (Main Energy Level)
Is a group of atomic orbitals with the same principal quantum number, n. e.g. 3rd shell compromises 3s, 3p, 3d.
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Principal Quantum Number, n
Is a number representing the relative overall energy of each orbital, which increases with distance from the nucleus. The sets of orbitals with the same n-value are referred to as electron shells or energy levels.
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An Atomic Orbital
A region within an atom that can hold up to two electrons, with opposite spins. A s level contains 2 orbitals (2 electrons). A p energy level contains 3 orbitals (6 electrons). A d energy level contains 5 orbitals (10 electrons).
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A Sub-Shell
A group of the same type of atomic orbitals (s,p, d or f) within a shell.
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An Electron Configuration
The arrangement of electrons in an atom.
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An Ionic Bond
The electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions.
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A Giant Ionic Lattice
A three dimensional structure of oppositley charged ions, held together by strong ionic bonds.
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A Group in the Periodic Table
Is a vertical column in the Periodic Table. Elements in the same group havce similar chemical properties and their atoms have the same number of outer-shell electrons.
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A Covalent Bond
Is a bond formed by a shared pair of electrons.
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A Lone Pair
Is an outer-shell pair of electrons that is not involved in chemical bonding.
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Dative Covalent (Co-ordinate) Bond
Is a shred pair of electrons which has been provided by one of the bonding atoms only.
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Electronegativity
Is a measure of the attraction of a bonded atom for the pair of electrons in a covalent bond.
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A Permanent Dipole
Is a small charge difference across a bond that results from a difference in the electronegativities of the bonded atoms.
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A Polar Covalent Bond
Has a permanent dipole.
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Intermolecular Force
An attractive force between two neighbouring molecules.
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Van der Waals forces
Attractive forces between induced dipoles in neighbouring molecules.
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A permanent dipole-diploe force
A weak attractive force between permanent dipoles in neighbouring molecules.
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Polar molecule
A molecule with an overall dipole, taking into account any diploes across the bonds.
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Hydrogen Bond
A strong dipole-dipole attraction between an electron defecient hydrogen atom on one molecule and a lone pair of electrons on a highly electronegative atom on a different molecule.
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Metallic Bond
The electrostatic attraction between positive metal ions and delocalised electrons.
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Delocalised Electrons
Are Shared between more than two atoms
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Giant Metallic Lattice
A three dimensional structure of positive ions and delocalised electrons, bonded together by strong metallic bonds.
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Giant Covalent Lattice
A three dimensional structure of atoms, bonded together by strong covalent bonds.
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Compound
A substance formed from two or more chemically bonded elements in a fixed ratio, usually shown by chemical formula.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Are a measure of the nergy required to remove each electron in turn.

Back

Successive Ionisation Energies

Card 3

Front

The energy required to remove one electron from each atom in one mole of gaseous atoms to form 1 mole of gaseous 1+ ions.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The energy required to remove one electron from each ion in 1 mole of gaseous 1+ ions to form 1 mole of gaseous 2+ ions.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Is a group of atomic orbitals with the same principal quantum number, n. e.g. 3rd shell compromises 3s, 3p, 3d.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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