Chemistry Unit 1, Module 1

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  • Created by: Tina
  • Created on: 06-12-13 13:31
Reagants and conditions for the nitration of benzene?
H2S04, HNO3, 50'C
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Reagants and conditions for the halogenation of benzene?
AlBr3
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Reagants and conditions for oxidation of aldehydes and ketones?
H2S04 and potassium dichromate, reflux and distill
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Reagants and conditions for reduction of aldehydes and ketones?
NaBH4, carbonyl is warmed with reducing agent
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Reagants for making esters from carboxlic acids
H2SO4
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Reagants for acid hydrolysis of esters
H2SO4 OR HCl
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Reagants and conditions for alkaline hyrolysis of esters
NaOH, reflux
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Reagants and conditions for preparation of primary aliphatic amines
ammonia, ethanol, warm
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Reagants and conditions for preparation of aromatic amines
Conc HCL and tin, heated under reflux
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Reagants and conditions for diazotisation
NaNO2/ HCl, under 10'C
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Reagants and conditions for coupling
Phenol, NaOH
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Describe benzene
Cyclic, 120', trigonal planar, each carbon atom has 4 outer sell electrions, the electrions in the p orbital overlap sideways to form a pi cloud of delocalised electrons above and below the 6 carbon atoms, the pi bonds are spread over all 6 carbon at
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Why phenol>benzene?
A lone pair of electrons in p-orbitals on oxygen atom of phenol is drawn into the ring, this increases the electron density, ring is activated, polarises the Br molecule and so more attracted to te ring structure than benzene
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Why solubility of carboxylic acids between 1-4 carbons long is good?
the high polar C=O and O-H allows carboxylic acid to form hydrogen bonds with the water molecules, As the number of carbon atoms increases, the solubility decreases. This is because of the longer non-polar hydrocarbon chain which does not interact.
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Pi bonding in cyclohexane?
p orbitals overlap to give a pi bond above and below 2 carbon atoms
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Card 2

Front

Reagants and conditions for the halogenation of benzene?

Back

AlBr3

Card 3

Front

Reagants and conditions for oxidation of aldehydes and ketones?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Reagants and conditions for reduction of aldehydes and ketones?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Reagants for making esters from carboxlic acids

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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