Chemistry Unit 1: Atoms and Reactions

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Isotopes
Isotopes are atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons.
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Atomic number
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
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Mass Number
The number protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
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Ion
An ion is a positively or negatively charged atom or group of atoms.
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Relative Isotopic Mass
Relative isotopic mass is the mass of an atom of an isotope compared with 1/12th of the mass of an atom of carbon-12.
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Relative Atomic Mass
Relative atomic mass is the weighted mean mass of an atom of an element compared with 1/12th of the mass of an atom of carbon-12.
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Relative Molecular Mass
Relative molecular mass is the weighted mean mass of a molecule compared with 1/12th of the mass of an atom of carbon-12.
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Relative Formula Mass
Relative Formula Mass is the weighted mean mass of a formula unit compared with 1/12th of an atom of carbon-12.
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The Avogadro Constant
The Avogadro constant is the number of atoms per mole of the carbon-12 isotope. (6/02 x 10^23 mol-1)
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Mole
A mole is the amount of any substance containing as many particles as there are carbon atoms in exactly 12g of the carbon-12 isotope.
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Molar Mass
Molar mass is the mass per mole of a substance.
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Empirical Formula
Empirical formula is the simplest whole-number ratio of atoms of each element present in a compound.
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Molecule
A molecule is a small group of atoms held together by covalent bonds.
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Molecular Formula
The molecular formula is the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule.
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Molar Volume
The volume per mole of a gas at room temperature.
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Species
A species is any type of particle that takes part in a chemical reaction.
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Acid
An acid is a species that is a proton donor.
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Base
A base is a species that is a proton acceptor.
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Alkali
An alkali is a type of base that dissolves in water forming hydroxide ions.
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Salt
A salt is any chemical compound formed from an acid when a H+ ion from the acid has been replaced by a metal ion or another positive ion.
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Cation
A cation is a positively charged ion.
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Anion
An anion is a negatively charged ion.
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Hydrated
A crystalline compound containing water molecules.
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Anhydrous
A substance that contains no water molecules.
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Water of Crystallisation
Water molecules that form an essential part of crystalline structure of a compound.
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Oxidation Number
An oxidation number is a measure of the number of electrons that an atom uses to bond with atoms of another element.
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Oxidation number of: An uncombined element
0.
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Oxidation number of: A combined oxygen
-2.
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Oxidation number of: A combined hydrogen
+1.
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Oxidation number of: A simple ion
The charge of that ion.
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Oxidation number of: A combined flourine
-1.
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Oxidation
Oxidation is loss of electrons or an increase in oxidation number.
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Reduction
Reductions if gain of electrons or a decrease in oxidation number.
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Redox Reaction
A redox reaction is a reaction in which both reduction and oxidation take place.
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What does OILRIG stand for?
Oxidation Is Loss, Reduction Is Gain.
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Reducing Agent
A reducing agent is a reagent that reduces (adds electrons to) another species.
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Oxidising Agent
An oxidising agent is a reagent that oxidises (takes electrons from) another species.
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Hydrochloric Acid
HCl
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Sulphuric Acid
H2SO4
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Nitric Acid
HNO3
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Ethanoic Acid
CH3COOH
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Card 2

Front

The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.

Back

Atomic number

Card 3

Front

The number protons and neutrons in the nucleus.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

An ion is a positively or negatively charged atom or group of atoms.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Relative isotopic mass is the mass of an atom of an isotope compared with 1/12th of the mass of an atom of carbon-12.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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