Chemistry Topics 34, 35, 36

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T34- What is concentrated brine solution?
Sodium chloride solution
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T34- What ions are present in the electrolysis of brine solution?
Na+ OH- Cl- and H+
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T34- What product will form at the Anode?
2Cl- ----> Cl2 + 2e- (hallide ion is present)
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T34- What product will form at the cathode?
2H+ + 2e- ---> H2 (Na is more reactive than hydrogen, so hydrogen gas will be produced.)
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T34- What useful product is left in the solution? What is it used for?
NaOH (sodium hydroxide.) A very strong base, widely used to make soaps, bleach and paper pulp.
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T34- What can chlorine be used for?
sterilises water supplies, makes bleach and HCl
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T34- What can hydrogen gas be used for?
Used in the Haber process, used to change oils and fats for making margarine.
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T35- What is the first way that ethanol can be produced?
Ethene +steam. C2H4 + H2O ----> C2H5OH Double bond of the ethene opens to join to H, H and O
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T35- What are the conditions needed for this production?
300 degrees Celsius. 60-70 atmospheres. Phosphoric acid is the catalyst.
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T35- Why might this way become more expensive in the future?
Due to peak oil, the increasing difficulty to find crude oil.
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T35- What is the second way that ethanol can be produced?
By the fermentation of yeast with glucose.
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T35- What are the conditions needed for this production?
30 degrees Celsius.
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T35- What are the advantages/disadvantages of using the first (steam) method?
It is very fast and pure. Ethene is a finite resource. Lower labour costs but higher temperatures.
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T35- What are the advantages/disadvantages of using the second (fermentation) method?
It is very slow and impure. Sugar and yeast are renewable resources. It has high labour costs, but low cost for equipment.
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T35- How you you form ethene from ethanol?
you can dehydrate the ethanol by passing the ethanol vapour over Aluminium oxide.
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T36- Describe the changes to litmus paper
Acid- RED Neutral- PURPLE Alkali- BLUE
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T36- Describe the changes to phenolphthalein
Acid- colourless Neutral- colourless Alkali- pink
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T36- Describe the changes to methyl orange
Acid-RED Neutral- YELLOW/ORANGE Alkali- YELLOW
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T36- What are alkalis?
They are soluble bases which provide OH- ions
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T36- What are acids?
They contain H+ ions
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T36- Acid + Metal Oxide ---> ?
Salt + water
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T36- Acid + Metal Carbonate ---> ?
Salt + water + carbon dioxide
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Card 2

Front

T34- What ions are present in the electrolysis of brine solution?

Back

Na+ OH- Cl- and H+

Card 3

Front

T34- What product will form at the Anode?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

T34- What product will form at the cathode?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

T34- What useful product is left in the solution? What is it used for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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