Chemistry Topic 4,5 and 6

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T4- What can paper chromatography separate?
liquids
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T4- Explain the process of paper chromatography?
1) Draw a line in pencil parallel and close to the edge of the paper. 2) Add spots of the dyes along the line. 3) Roll up paper and place in shallow solvent. 4) Dye will dissolve in solvent.
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T4- What are three precautions to take in order for the experiment to be successful?
The solvent in the beaker cannot touch the dyes directly, or the dye will dissolve into the solvent in the beaker. Use pencil as it is mainly insoluble. Put a lid on the beaker so that the solvent doesn't evaporate.
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T4- How can chromatographs show the separated dye?
In the mixture of dyes, some dyes dissolve more readily in the solvent than others, and therefore move faster.
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T4- What does the distance that the dye moves depend on?
The solvent used and the paper used.
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T5- What can simple distillation separate?
A liquid from a solution e.g pure water from sea water.
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T5- Explain how simple distillation works
When the solution is heated, the part of the solution with the lowest boiling point will evaporate the fastest. It rises and then is condensed in a condenser filled with cold water.
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T5- What are the limitations of simple distillation?
You cannot have a mixture of liquids with similar boiling point/ the boiling points have to be extremely different.
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T5- What can fractional distillation be used to separate?
A mixture of liquids, irregardless of similarities/ differences in their boiling points.
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T5- Explain the process of fractional distillation
When heated, the liquid with the lowest boiling point will evaporate, condense at the top, and is collected. A liquid with a similar boiling point may start to evaporate, but when reaching the cool part of the column, it condenses back down.
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T5- What happens when the first liquid has been collected?
You can control the temperature, and raise it slightly until the next liquid starts to evaporate.
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T6- What is the periodic table arranged in order of?
the atomic number/mass of the elements.
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T6- What do elements in the same groups have?
The same number of electrons in their outer shell and therefore similar properties.
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T6- What does the group number correspond to?
The number of electrons in the outer shell.
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T6- What type of elements form ionic bonds?
Non-metals with metals.
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T6- What is the ionic bond?
It is the strong electrostatic attraction between positive and negative ions.
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T6- How is an ion formed? and what ions do metals or non-metals form?
An ion is formed from the loss of gain of electrons from the atom. Metals- CATIONS. non-metals- ANIONS.
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T6- What is oxidation, and what is reduction?
Oxidation is loss of electrons. Reduction is gain of electrons.
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T6- What charge will a zinc ion have?
Zn 2+
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T6- What charge will a silver ion have?
Ag +
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T6- What charge will a hydrogen ion have?
H +
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T6- What charge will a ammonium ion have?
NH4 +
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T6- What charge will a nitrate ion have?
NO3 -
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T6- What charge will a hydroxide ion have?
OH -
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T6- What charge will a hydrogencarbonate ion have?
HCO3 -
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T6- What charge will a carbonate ion have?
CO3 2-
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T6- What charge will a sulphate ion have?
SO4 2-
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

T4- Explain the process of paper chromatography?

Back

1) Draw a line in pencil parallel and close to the edge of the paper. 2) Add spots of the dyes along the line. 3) Roll up paper and place in shallow solvent. 4) Dye will dissolve in solvent.

Card 3

Front

T4- What are three precautions to take in order for the experiment to be successful?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

T4- How can chromatographs show the separated dye?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

T4- What does the distance that the dye moves depend on?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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