Chemistry Topic 18, 19 and 20

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T18- What does the amount of product made by electrolysis depend on?
The number of electrons transferred.
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T18- How can you increase the number of electrons transferred?
electrolysing for a longer time or increasing the current.
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T18- Charge (Q in coulombs) =?
I (current in amps) x t (time in seconds.)
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T18- What does 1 coulomb mean?
1 amp x 1 second.
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T18- What is equivalent to 1 Faraday?
96,000 coulombs = 1 Faraday = 1 mole of electrons
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T18- How do you figure out 'n' moles of electrons needed for one mole of product?
You write out the ionic half equation, and the charge of the ions corresponds to the moles of electrons needed.
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T18- How would you calculate the mass of a product produced if you knew the time and current of the electrolysis?
1) write out half equation. 2) Using Q = I x t (seconds) work out faradays. 3) 1 Faraday = 1 mole of electrons so divide by number of electrons in half equation. GIVES YOU THE NUMBER OF MOLES OF ATOMS. 4) convert moles into mass.
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T19- What pH do metal oxides have?
Basic, more than 7.
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T19-What pH do non-metal oxides have?
acidic, more than 7.
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T19-What are the properties of group 0, why?
They are all inert and colourless gases because they have a full outer shell, so they do not gain or lose electrons. Therefore they are unreactive.
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T19- What test could you carry out to recognize the group 1 metals as a family?
Put them in water, and K, Na and Li will all react vigorously.
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T19- What products do alkali metals and water produce?
Metal hydroxides + hydrogen.
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T19- What effect does the formation of these products have on the reaction?
The hydrogen produced will cause 'fizzing,' the hydroxide OH- ions will mean that the solution will be alkaline.
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T19- What is the trend in reactivity in group 1?
As you go down (atomic number increases,) the elements become more reactive.
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T19- What is the reason behind this trend?
group1 want to lose the 1 electron to have a full outer shell beneath. When there are more energy shells as the atomic number increases, the attraction from the positive nucleus decreases, electrons can be lost easily, making it reactive.
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T20- What is the colour and physical state of chlorine at RT?
Green gas
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T20- What is the colour and physical state of Bromine at RT?
Red-Brown, liquid
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T20- What is the colour and physical state of Iodine at RT?
Dark grey solid.
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T20- What is the correlation between atomic number and properties of elements/reactivity in the Halogen group?
As the atomic number increases, the elements become darker in colour and higher in boiling point. The lower the atomic number, the more reactive.
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T20- What is the reason behind this pattern?
Halogen atoms want to gain one electron in their outer shell. When there are fewer energy levels, the electrons can attract easily from the greater positive pull from the nucleus. Therefore, electrons can be more easily gained, so the it is reactive.
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T20- Halogen + Hydrogen =
Hydrogen Hallide such as Hyrdogen Bromide.
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T20- Hydrogen Chloride is?
A gas at room temperature.
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T20- What happens when Hydrogen chloride gas is dissolved in water?
The H+ and Cl- ions dissociate and split up. This forms hydrochloric acid which is acidic due to the H+ ions.
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T20- What happens when Hydrogen chloride gas is dissolved in an organic solvent like methylbenzene?
The HCl ions do not dissociate, so the ions do not separate. It is not acidic.
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Card 2

Front

T18- How can you increase the number of electrons transferred?

Back

electrolysing for a longer time or increasing the current.

Card 3

Front

T18- Charge (Q in coulombs) =?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

T18- What does 1 coulomb mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

T18- What is equivalent to 1 Faraday?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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