Chemistry Topic 15 and 16

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T15- What is electric current?
The flow of ions or electrons, therefore they can act as charge carriers.
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T15- When do ionic compounds conduct electricity and why?
ONLY when molten or in a solution, as when solid, the ions are fixed in a lattice, however when molten, the ions are separated and are able to move around and carry electric current.
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T15- When do covalent substances conduct electricity and why?
They do not, as the atoms have no charge, and the electrons are used/shared in the bonding, so they cannot move around and carry charge.
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T15- Describe the structure of a metal.
It is a giant structure of cations, surrounded by a sea of delocalised electrons.
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T15- Why are metals good conductors of electrical and thermal energy?
The delocalised electrons are able to move and carry charge or thermal energy through the substance.
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T15- Why are metals malleable and ductile?
The when hammered, the layers of cations in the metal can slide over one another.
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T15- Why do metals have high melting points?
Metallic bonding is the strong attraction between closely packed positive metal ions and a 'sea' of delocalised electrons. Therefore lots of energy is needed to break these bonds.
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T16- What is electrolysis?
It involves the formation of new substances when ionic compounds conduct electricity.
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T16- How do the electrons flow?
From the positive anode (taken from the negative ions), to the negative cathode, (given to the positive ions.)
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T16- Which electrode do the cations attract to?
The cathode which is negative.
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T16- Which electrode do the anions attract to?
The anode which is positive.
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T16- What will the half equation at the cathode look like?
Metal cations always gain electrons, so the electrons will be on the left hand side of the equation.
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T16- What will the half equation at the anode look like?
Non-metal anions always lose electrons, so the electrons will be on the right hand side of the equation.
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T16- When writing ionic half equations, what must you include/consider?
Include charges of ions. Consider what the non-metal will form- diatomic gas. Consider what the metal ions will produce- solid metal. Make sure number of electrons balance out charges of ions. If diatomic product is produced, re-balance equation.
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T16- How would you distinguish between electrolytes and non-electrolytes?
1) set up an electrolytic cell, if the electrolyte undergoes electrolysis then it does conduct electricity. 2) You can place a conductivity probe in an electrolyte, and current will flow through the circuit, so you can measure conductivity.
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Card 2

Front

T15- When do ionic compounds conduct electricity and why?

Back

ONLY when molten or in a solution, as when solid, the ions are fixed in a lattice, however when molten, the ions are separated and are able to move around and carry electric current.

Card 3

Front

T15- When do covalent substances conduct electricity and why?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

T15- Describe the structure of a metal.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

T15- Why are metals good conductors of electrical and thermal energy?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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