Chemistry Summer revision

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  • Created by: Tiana
  • Created on: 07-06-15 13:21
give two examples of acid reactions
1. metal + acid = hydrogen + salt (magnesium + hydrochloric acid = hydrogen + magnesium chloride) 2. base + acid = salt + water (copper oxide + hydrochloric acid = copper chloride + water)
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what are the solubility rules?
1. all nitrates are soluble 2. all chlorides are soluble except silver and lead 3. most sulfates are soluble except lead barium and calcium 4. all carbonates are insoluble except sodium and potassium
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preparation of soluble salts experiment : what is the gas that bubbles off?
carbon dioxide
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preparation of soluble salts experiment: how do you know that all the acid has been used up?
there is excess zinc carbonate left over
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preparation of soluble salts experiment: why is it important to ensure that all the acid has been reacted?
because it is impossible to filter
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preparation of soluble salts experiment: sodium nitrate cannot be made by this method. What property of sodium carbonate makes this method of preparation inappropriate?
sodium carbonate is soluble so you cannot filter it off
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preparation of insoluble salts: why can insoluble salts NOT be prepared by the method of soluble salts?
because a layer of precipitate salt forms around the surface of the solid metal / base / metal carbonate. This stops the acid from reacting any further.
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Name a soluble copper salt
copper sulphate
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name a soluble carbonate
sodium carbonate
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draw a diagram showing a solution containing two different types of particle at low concentration and another diagram for high concentration
. . .
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name 4 things that will affect rate of reaction (rates and collision theory)
1. the higher the temp. the faster rate of reaction 2. a lower concentration will reduce rate of reaction 3. a smaller particle size will increase rate of reaction 4. using a catalyst increases rate of reaction
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draw an atom, molecule, element and compound
. . .
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What is an element?
substance made up of only one atom - elements can occur as atoms or molecules
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What is a compound?
pure substance that contains 2 or more elements chemically joined
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How can collision frequency be changed?
by altering the surface area or the concentraion
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What is the collision theory?
for particles to react they must collide and have enough energy. So reaction speed is affected by 1. collision frequency 2. the energy of the particles
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What is a catalyst?
a substance that usually speeds up a reaction. At the end of the reaction the catalyst is chemically unchanged so they can be used over and over again
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give 2 facts about catalysts
1. different reactions need different catalysts 2. a catalyst lowers the activation energy
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What is an enzyme?
a biological catalyst that speeds up a reaction, whilst remaining chemically unchanged. They are large protein molecules
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give 3 facts about enzymes
1. most work best at warm temperatures 2. each enzyme works best at one particular pH 3. they are not alive - they are molecules
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What would form if magnesium reacted with sulphuric acid?
hydrogen + magnesium sulphate (magnesium + sulphuric acid = hydrogen + magnesium sulphate)
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What is the gas test for this? (magnesium + sulphuric acid)
lighting splint - POPS
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gas test for carbon dioxide?
limewater goes cloudy
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label a diagram for SOLID LIQUID and GAS triangle
. . . . (should include - freezing, melting, subliming, resubliming, evaporating/ boiling , condensing)
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describe the structure of electron shells
1st = 2 electrons 2nd shell = 8 electrons 3rd shell = 8 electrons
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What are halogens?
halogens is the name for the set of elements in group 7
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What are alkanes?
saturated hydrocarbons; this means that they contain the greatest possible number of atoms
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give one example of a simple hydrocarbon (include its name, formula and structure)
Methane, CH4, diagram:
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All combustion involves a reaction with....?
oxygen in the air
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what are the products of complete combustion?
carbon dioxide and water
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what are the products of incomplete combustion?
carbon monoxide or carbon and water, depending on the oxygen supply
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

what are the solubility rules?

Back

1. all nitrates are soluble 2. all chlorides are soluble except silver and lead 3. most sulfates are soluble except lead barium and calcium 4. all carbonates are insoluble except sodium and potassium

Card 3

Front

preparation of soluble salts experiment : what is the gas that bubbles off?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

preparation of soluble salts experiment: how do you know that all the acid has been used up?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

preparation of soluble salts experiment: why is it important to ensure that all the acid has been reacted?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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