Chemistry - Structure and bonding

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What is an ion?
An electrically charge particle formed when atoms lose and gain electrons.
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When a metal loses an electron, what charge does it have?
Positive.
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When a non metal gains an electron, what charge does it have?
Negative.
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What is the group number?
Number of charges on a ion formed by a metal.
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How do you work out the number of charges on an iront formed by a non metal?
Group number - 8.
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How are ions formed?
When metal react with non metals (electrons are transferred from metal atoms to non metal atoms).
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What is the name of the resultant comound in ionic bonding?
An ionic compound.
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What is a covalent bond?
A strong bond between two non metals.
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How is a covalent bond formed?
The two non metal atoms share a pair of electrons.
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Can atoms have multiple covalent bonds?
Yes
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How do you work out the number of covalent bonds an element will form?
8 - group number
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What does the rule in the previous question exclude?
Hyfrogen and the noble gases.
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How can covalent bonds be represented?
In straight lines and in models,
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In a dot and cross diagram, what are the two shared electrons shown as?
A dot and a cross.
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Describe simple molecular structures?
Molecules are joined by strong covalent bonds but held together by weak forces so have a low melting/boiling point and do not conduct electricity.
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Describe giant covalent structures?
Atoms joined together by covalent bonds to form a giant lattice. They hav ehigh metlting/boiling points
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Name the three marcromolecules?
Diamond, graphite and silican.
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What are the characteristics of a diomond?
A form of carbon in which each carbon is joined to four other ocarbon atoms (giant covalent structure), very hard, high melting point nad does not conduct electricity.
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What are the characteristics of a graphite?
A form of carbon in which carbon atoms form layers. Each carbon atom is a layer joined to three other carbon atoms. layers can slide as no covalent bonds between them. Much softer than diamond, used in pencils/as lubricent, conducts electricity.
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What are the characteristics of a silican?
Found in sand, similar structure to diamond, high melting points, countains silicon and oxygen atoms and are not carbon atoms.
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Describe thermosoftening polymers?
Soften when heating, harden when cooled this is because the tangled polymer uncoils when heated and slide past eachother making it flexible. Example is polyethene (plastic bags).
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Descrive thermosetting polymers?
One moulded do not soften. Polymer chains join together by cross links, so cannot slide past eachother easily. Example i s vulacanise rubber (tyres).
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What is an ionic compounds?
A strong force of attraction betwwen oppositely charge ions.
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What can ionic comonds do only when dissolved in water and why?
Conduct electricity as ions are free to move a carry current.
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Why can metals be bent?
Their layer can slide over eachother.
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Why are metals good conductors of elecricity?
There electrons are free to move through out the metal.
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What are alloys?
Mixtures of two or more elements where at least one is metal.
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Why are alloys harder than pure metals?
They contain atoms of different sizes making it hard for the layers to slide of eachother.
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What is special about nanoparticles?
They have very large surface area compared to volume, so often react quickly so are useul as catalysts.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

When a metal loses an electron, what charge does it have?

Back

Positive.

Card 3

Front

When a non metal gains an electron, what charge does it have?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the group number?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How do you work out the number of charges on an iront formed by a non metal?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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