Chemistry revision cards

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  • Created by: Gemma
  • Created on: 11-04-14 10:52
Hydrolysis of an alkene
Phosphoric acid catalyst absorbed onto silica and steam. 300 degrees , 30 atm OR concentrated H2SO4 with water , 1atm
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Addition of Br (l) to alkene
Room temp
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Addition of Br (aq) to alkene
Room temp
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Hydrogenation of an alkene
Platinum catalyst + room temp OR nickel catalyst, 150 degrees + 5 atm
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Alkene to halogenoalkane
room temp
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R-Hal + OH
concentrated NaOH , ethanol (solvent) , heat under reflux
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R-Hal + H2O
Heat under reflux , H20
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R-Hal + NH3
heat in a sealed tube , conc NH3
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Alkane + Br2 (l)
Sunlight
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Alcohol to halogenoalkane
concentrated H2SO4 + NaBr (s) - if making bromoalkane
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Oxidation of primary alcohol to aldehyde
Distillation + acidified potassium dichromate
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Oxidation of a primary alcohol to COOH
Reflux + acidified potassium dichromate
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Oxidation of a secondary alcohol to ketone
Reflux + acidified potassium dichromate
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Give an example of an electrophillic addition reaction
Alkene + halogen
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Give an example of an electrophilic substitution reaction
Benzene reaction
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Give an example of a nucleophillic substitution reaction
Reactions of R-Hal with amine, water, alcohol & making an halogenoalkane from an alcohol
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What is an electrophile?
An electrophile is a species (molecule/ion) with a partial positive charge which will be attracted to a negatively charged region + react by accepting a lone pair of electrons from a covalent bond
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What is a nucleophile?
Is a species (molecule/negatively charged ion) with a lone pair of electrons that it can donate to a positive charged atom to form a covalent bond
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What is Iron (III) chloride for + describe any colour change?
Phenol + its derivative - changes from colourless to purple
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What are the advantages + disadvantages of reacting phenol with ethanoic anhydride?
Advantage: not too unpleasant/dangerous Disadvantage: not as reactive as ethanoyl chloride
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What are the advantages + disadvantages of reacting phenol with ethanoyl chloride?
Advantage: much more reactive than ethanoic anhydride Disadvantage: toxic + hazardous
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In the electrophillic addition of the cyanide ion to aldehyde where does the lone pair go?
Lone pair on the Carbon of the cyanide ion + when the oxygen has been given the bonding pair from the double bond
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In the electrophillic addition of the cyanide ion to aldehyde where are there any charges?
Partial charge on the aldehyde (delta positive for the carbon and oxygen) , negative charge above the C in the cyanide ion , and on the oxygen after the double bond has been broken
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State the stages in the electrophillic addition reaction of aldehyde and cyanide ion
1. The cyanide ion approached the aldehyde 2. the lone pair on the cyanide ion forms a new covalent bond with the carbon in the aldehyde 3. the double bond between the C & O break- this leaves the O with a lone pair + negative charge
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Definition of Combinatorial Chemistry?
used to make a large number of related compounds (analogues) together, so that their potential effectiveness as medicines can be assessed by large-scale screening
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In mass spec - which molecular ion is responsible for a peak at 15?
CH3
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In mass spec - which molecular ion is responsible for a peak at 77 ?
Phenyl/phenol - C6H5
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In mass spec - which molecular ion is responsible for a peak at 17?
OH
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In mass spec - which molecular ion is responsible for a peak at 28?
C=O or C2H4
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In mass spec - which molecular ion is responsible for a peak at 29?
C2H5
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In mass spec - which molecular ion is responsible for a peak at 43?
COCH3
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In mass spec - which molecular ion is responsible for a peak at 45?
COOH
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In TLC why is a watch glass used to cover the silica plate?
Prevents evaporation of the solvent + ensure equilibria/equal exposure to the vapour , so that the space is saturated with solvent vapour
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What are the basic principle of TLC?
The compounds in the mixture have different affinities for the solvent , so each compound will move through the solvent at different rates?
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Which question does Step I in clinical trials aim to answer?
Is it safe?
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Which question does Step II in clinical trials aim to answer?
Does it work?
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Which question does Step III in clinical trials aim to answer?
Is it more effective than the standard treatment?
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Purpose of Seperating funnel?
used to purify an organic liquid after it has been synthesised
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Purpose of distillation?
to seperate 2/more miscible liquids with different boiling points
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Purpose of reflux?
reactions involving volatile liquids to prevent reactant/products escaping during the reaction
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Purpose of TLC?
purify organic compounds
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Purpose of recrystallisation?
purify solid organic molecules
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Purpose of Redox titration?
to find the unknown concentration of a substance
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Purpose of colorimetry?
To find out the concentration of a coloured solution
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Name C3H8O2
Propane - 1,3-diol
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Name C3H7OH
Propan-2-ol
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Name CH3COOH
Ethanoic acid
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Name COOHCH2COOH
1,3-propane dioc acid
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Name CH3COOCH2CH2CH3
propylethanoate
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Name CH3CH2COH
propanal
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Name CH3COCH3
propanone
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Name C6H5OH
phenol
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Name CH3COCl
Ethanoyl chloride
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Name CH3COOCH3CO
Ethanoic anhydride
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Name CH3CH2NH3CH3
2-amino propane
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Name NH2CH2CH2CH2NH2
1,3-diaminopropane
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Name CH3CH2CH2OCH3
methoxypropane (shortest chain = oxy)
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Name CH3CH2CH2CH2Br
1-bromobutane
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Define Thermoplastic
Materials which contain polymers with no cross-links between the chains . The weak IM can be broken on heating + reformed on cooling
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Define Thermoset
Materials which contain extensive cross-linking. They stay set in the same shape when heated
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Are all nitrates soluble?
Yes
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Are all chloride soluble?
Yes, except AgCl + PbCl2
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Are all sulfates soluble?
Most except - BaSO4 , PbSO4 + SrSO4
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Are all carbonates soluble?
All are insoluble, except NH4 + and those of group 1 elements
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Are all sodium salts soluble?
Yes
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Are all potassium salts soluble?
Yes
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Are all ammonium salts soluble?
Yes
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Addition of Br (l) to alkene

Back

Room temp

Card 3

Front

Addition of Br (aq) to alkene

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Hydrogenation of an alkene

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Alkene to halogenoalkane

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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