Chemistry- OCR 21st Century C4

Atoms, Line spectrums, Ionic Bonding, Alkali Metals, Halogens

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Khadeejah
  • Created on: 07-12-13 12:13
What are the three parts of an atom?
Neutrons, Protons and Electrons
1 of 76
What is the nucleus made up of?
Neutrons and protons
2 of 76
What is the mass of a proton and its charge?
Mass is 1 and it has a positive charge
3 of 76
What is the mass of a neutron and its charge?
Mass is 1 and it has no charge
4 of 76
What is the mass of an electron and its charge?
Mass is negligible and has a negative charge
5 of 76
How did Dmitri Mendeleev order the periodic table?
He placed elements in order of relative atomic mass and he left gaps to keep elements with similar properties in the same vertical groups. Some elements did not have the same properties as others in the same group so he swapped them.
6 of 76
What does the group number represent?
The number of electron in the outer shell
7 of 76
What does the period number represent?
The amount of electron shells the element has
8 of 76
What is the atomic mass number?
The total of all protons and neutrons
9 of 76
What is the atomic number?
The number of protons and electrons
10 of 76
How are ions made?
When an atom gains or loses electrons
11 of 76
How does a metal become an ion?
It loses its electrons in the outer shell to become stable. It becomes positively charged.
12 of 76
How does a non-metal become an ion?
It gains electrons in the outer shell until it is full to become stable. It becomes negatively charged.
13 of 76
What is electron configuration?
The number of electrons in each shell
14 of 76
How many electrons can each shell hold?
The first shell can hold 2 electrons and the other shells can hold up to 8 electrons.
15 of 76
How are ions held together?
By the force of attraction between oppositely charged ions
16 of 76
What is the electron configuration of each ion the same as?
The nearest noble gas
17 of 76
What is the number of charges on an ion equal to?
The valency of the element
18 of 76
What do the charges in an ionic compound add up to?
They add up to 0
19 of 76
What are positively charged ions called?
Cations
20 of 76
What are negatively charged ions called?
Anions
21 of 76
What types of metals are in Group 1?
Alkali Metals
22 of 76
Why does reactivity increase as you go down Group 1?
Because the outer shell electrons get progressively further away from the nucleus so the force of attraction between the protons and electrons in outer shells weaken, they can be lost more easily.The outer electron is shielded from nuclear attraction
23 of 76
What is made when a metal and non-metal react?
A salt
24 of 76
What is the trend in density in Group 1?
As you go down the group the density increases slightly
25 of 76
What is the trend in melting and boiling points in Group 1?
They decrease because the atoms are more reactive
26 of 76
What is the colour of all compounds in Group 1 and why?
White because we know sodium chloride is white
27 of 76
What do alkali metals produce when reacted with cold water?
Hydrogen gas
28 of 76
What are Group 7?
The halogens, all non-metals and diatomic.
29 of 76
What colour is fluorine?
Pale yellow
30 of 76
What colour is chlorine?
Pale green
31 of 76
What colour is bromine?
Brown
32 of 76
What colour is iodine?
A grey solid and purple gas
33 of 76
What colour is astatine?
Black
34 of 76
Which halogens are gases at room temperature?
Fluorine and chlorine
35 of 76
What halogen is liquid at room temperature?
Bromine
36 of 76
Which halogens are solids at room temperature?
Iodine and astatine
37 of 76
What happens to the reactivity in Group 7 as you go down?
They become less reactive because the outer electrons are further from the nucleus and so additional electrons are attracted less strongly
38 of 76
What happens to the melting and boiling point as you go down Group 7?
They increase because the elements become less reactive
39 of 76
What happens when an alkali metal reacts with a halogen?
A salt called a metal hallide is made
40 of 76
What happens when a halogen reacts with iron?
They form coloured solids called iron hallides
41 of 76
What is always made when a halogen reacts with another element?
A salt
42 of 76
What is the chemical test to detect the presence of a halogen?
Add 4-5 drops of silver nitrate to a compound containing a halogen
43 of 76
If chlorine is present what colour would its precipitate be?
White
44 of 76
If bromine is present what colour would its precipitate be?
Cream
45 of 76
If iodine is present what colour would its precipitate be?
Yellow
46 of 76
What is made when chlorine and potassium iodide react and why?
Potassium chloride and iodine is made because chlorine is more reactive than bromine so it displaces bromine from its compound
47 of 76
What is a displacement reaction with a halogen?
Where a more reactive halogen takes the place of a less reactive halogen in a compound
48 of 76
How do you carry out a flame test?
Wear eye protection, clean the end of a nichrome wire by dipping it in HCl and heating it until the wire doesn't colour the bunsen flame, dip the wire in the substance and put the tip of the wire in the non-luminous part of the flame.
49 of 76
What should you do to the wire between successive tests?
Clean it with HCl and by heating it
50 of 76
What should you do if sodium is present?
View the flame through a blue glass
51 of 76
What is the flame colour for lithium, sodium, potassium, calcium, barium, strontium and copper in this order?
Bright red, yellow, orange, lilac, red-orange, green, crimson, blue-green
52 of 76
How can alkali metals be identified?
With flame tests
53 of 76
What is spectroscopy?
The study in which atoms and molecules absorb and emit light
54 of 76
Explain what creates the line spectra of an atom.
Heating electrons gives them energy so they move to different shells further from the nucleus, as they drop back down they emit energy as light. Each jump corresponds to a colour. Only certain jumps are possible so the spectrum is a series of lines
55 of 76
What is the state of sodium and its colour?
Solid and grey
56 of 76
What is the state of sodium chloride and its colour?
Solid and white
57 of 76
What is the hardness of sodium?
Soft
58 of 76
What is the hardness of sodium chloride?
Hard
59 of 76
Is sodium a conductor or insulator?
Conductor
60 of 76
Is chlorine a conductor or insulator?
Insulator
61 of 76
Is sodium chloride a conductor or insulator?
Insulator
62 of 76
What is the behavior of sodium in water?
It fizzes violently then dissolves
63 of 76
What is the behavior of chlorine and sodium chloride in water?
They dissolve
64 of 76
What type of chemical is sodium?
Alkali metal
65 of 76
What type of chemical is chlorine?
Toxic non-metal
66 of 76
What type of chemical is sodium chloride?
Harmless compound
67 of 76
Why aren't pipes made of potassium?
It reacts with water
68 of 76
What is the chemical formula for carbonate and its valency?
CO3 with a valency of 2
69 of 76
What is the chemical formula for hydroxide and its valency?
OH with a valency of 1
70 of 76
What is the chemical formula for nitrate?
NO3 with a valency of 1
71 of 76
What is the chemical formula for sulphate and its valency?
SO4 with a valency of 2
72 of 76
What is the chemical formula of ammonia and its valency
NH4 with a valency of 1
73 of 76
What is the chemical formula of magnesium hydroxide?
Mg(OH)2
74 of 76
What is the chemical formula for aluminium sulphate?
Al2(SO4)3
75 of 76
What is the name the reaction taking place in this equation: 2Mg+O2--> 2MgO
Oxidation
76 of 76

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the nucleus made up of?

Back

Neutrons and protons

Card 3

Front

What is the mass of a proton and its charge?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the mass of a neutron and its charge?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the mass of an electron and its charge?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Chemistry resources:

See all Chemistry resources »See all Atoms resources »