Chemistry OCR 1.2.2 Shells and Orbitals

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What do successive ionisation energies provide evidence of?
the presence of shells and the number of electrons in each shell.
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What is a shell/energy level?
a group of atomic orbitals with the same principal quantum number,n. Also known as the main energy level.
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What is the principal quantum number, n?
a number representing the relative overall energy of each orbital, which increases with distance from the nucleus. The sets of orbitals with the same n-value are referred to as electron shells.
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What expression is used to find out how many electrons each shell can hold?
2n^2 (2xn squared) i.e 1st shell, n=1 has 2x1x1= 2. 2nd shell, n=2 has 2x2x2=8
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What do you call regions around the nucleus in which electrons are found?
atomic orbitals
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What is the maximum number of electrons each atomic orbital can hold?
Two
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What is the maximum number of electrons each atomic orbital can hold?
Two
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What are the four different types of orbital?
s,p,d and f
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What is the maximum number of electrons each atomic orbital can hold?
Two
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What are the four different types of orbital?
s,p,d and f
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What is the maximum number of electrons each atomic orbital can hold?
Two
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What are the four different types of orbital?
s,p,d and f
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What is the maximum number of electrons each atomic orbital can hold?
Two
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What are the four different types of orbital?
s,p,d and f
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What shape is an s- orbital? From n=1 upwards, how many s-orbitals does each shell contain? Therefore how many 's' electrons are in each shell?
Spherical shape.
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What is the maximum number of electrons each atomic orbital can hold?
Two
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What are the four different types of orbital?
s,p,d and f
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What shape is an s- orbital? From n=1 upwards, how many s-orbitals does each shell contain? Therefore how many 's' electrons are in each shell?
Spherical shape. Each shell contains one s-orbital and therefore 2s electrons.
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What is the maximum number of electrons each atomic orbital can hold?
Two
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What are the four different types of orbital?
s,p,d and f
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What shape is an s- orbital? From n=1 upwards, how many s-orbitals does each shell contain? Therefore how many 's' electrons are in each shell?
Spherical shape. Each shell contains one s-orbital and therefore 2s electrons.
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What shape is a p- orbital? From n=2 upwards, how many p-orbitals does each shell contain? Therefore how many 'p' electrons are in each shell?
Dum
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What is the maximum number of electrons each atomic orbital can hold?
Two
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What are the four different types of orbital?
s,p,d and f
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What shape is an s- orbital? From n=1 upwards, how many s-orbitals does each shell contain? Therefore how many 's' electrons are in each shell?
Spherical shape. Each shell contains one s-orbital and therefore 2s electrons.
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What shape is a p- orbital? From n=2 upwards, how many p-orbitals does each shell contain? Therefore how many 'p' electrons are in each shell?
Dumb-bell shape. Each shell contains 3 p-orbitals and therefore 6p electrons.
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What is the maximum number of electrons each atomic orbital can hold?
Two
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What are the four different types of orbital?
s,p,d and f
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What shape is an s- orbital? From n=1 upwards, how many s-orbitals does each shell contain? Therefore how many 's' electrons are in each shell?
Spherical shape. Each shell contains one s-orbital and therefore 2s electrons.
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What shape is a p- orbital? From n=2 upwards, how many p-orbitals does each shell contain? Therefore how many 'p' electrons are in each shell?
Dumb-bell shape. Each shell contains 3 p-orbitals and therefore 6p electrons.
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What is the maximum number of electrons each atomic orbital can hold?
Two
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What are the four different types of orbital?
s,p,d and f
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What shape is an s- orbital? From n=1 upwards, how many s-orbitals does each shell contain? Therefore how many 's' electrons are in each shell?
Spherical shape. Each shell contains one s-orbital and therefore 2s electrons.
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What shape is a p- orbital? From n=2 upwards, how many p-orbitals does each shell contain? Therefore how many 'p' electrons are in each shell?
Dumb-bell shape. Each shell contains 3 p-orbitals and therefore 6p electrons.
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From n=3 upwards, how many d-orbitals does each shell contain? Therefore how many 'd' electrons are in each shell?
Each shell contains 5 d-orbitals and therefore a maximum of 10d electrons
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What is the maximum number of electrons each atomic orbital can hold?
Two
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What are the four different types of orbital?
s,p,d and f
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What shape is an s- orbital? From n=1 upwards, how many s-orbitals does each shell contain? Therefore how many 's' electrons are in each shell?
Spherical shape. Each shell contains one s-orbital and therefore a maximum of 2s electrons.
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What shape is a p- orbital? From n=2 upwards, how many p-orbitals does each shell contain? Therefore how many 'p' electrons are in each shell?
Dumb-bell shape. Each shell contains 3 p-orbitals and therefore a maximum of 6p electrons.
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From n=3 upwards, how many d-orbitals does each shell contain? Therefore how many 'd' electrons are in each shell?
Each shell contains 5 d-orbitals and therefore a maximum of 10d electrons
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What is the maximum number of electrons each atomic orbital can hold?
Two
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What are the four different types of orbital?
s,p,d and f
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What shape is an s- orbital? From n=1 upwards, how many s-orbitals does each shell contain? Therefore how many 's' electrons are in each shell?
Spherical shape. Each shell contains one s-orbital and therefore a maximum of 2s electrons.
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What shape is a p- orbital? From n=2 upwards, how many p-orbitals does each shell contain? Therefore how many 'p' electrons are in each shell?
Dumb-bell shape. Each shell contains 3 p-orbitals and therefore a maximum of 6p electrons.
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From n=3 upwards, how many d-orbitals does each shell contain? Therefore how many 'd' electrons are in each shell?
Each shell contains 5 d-orbitals and therefore a maximum of 10d electrons
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What is the maximum number of electrons each atomic orbital can hold?
Two
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What are the four different types of orbital?
s,p,d and f
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What shape is an s- orbital? From n=1 upwards, how many s-orbitals does each shell contain? Therefore how many 's' electrons are in each shell?
Spherical shape. Each shell contains one s-orbital and therefore a maximum of 2s electrons.
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What shape is a p- orbital? From n=2 upwards, how many p-orbitals does each shell contain? Therefore how many 'p' electrons can each shell contain?
Dumb-bell shape. Each shell contains 3 p-orbitals and therefore a maximum of 6p electrons.
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From n=3 upwards, how many d-orbitals does each shell contain? Therefore how many 'd' electrons can each shell contain?
Each shell contains 5 d-orbitals and therefore a maximum of 10d electrons
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What is the maximum number of electrons each atomic orbital can hold?
Two
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What are the four different types of orbital?
s,p,d and f
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What shape is an s- orbital? From n=1 upwards, how many s-orbitals does each shell contain? Therefore how many 's' electrons can each shell contain?
Spherical shape. Each shell contains one s-orbital and therefore a maximum of 2s electrons.
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What shape is a p- orbital? From n=2 upwards, how many p-orbitals does each shell contain? Therefore how many 'p' electrons can each shell contain?
Dumb-bell shape. Each shell contains 3 p-orbitals and therefore a maximum of 6p electrons.
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From n=3 upwards, how many d-orbitals does each shell contain? Therefore how many 'd' electrons can each shell contain?
Each shell contains 5 d-orbitals and therefore a maximum of 10d electrons
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From n=4 upwards how many f-orbitals does each shell contain? Therefore how many 'd' electrons can each shell contain?
Each shell contains 7 f-orbitals and therefore a maximum of 14f electrons
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What is the maximum number of electrons each atomic orbital can hold?
Two
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What are the four different types of orbital?
s,p,d and f
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What shape is an s- orbital? From n=1 upwards, how many s-orbitals does each shell contain? Therefore how many 's' electrons can each shell contain?
Spherical shape. Each shell contains one s-orbital and therefore a maximum of 2s electrons.
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What shape is a p- orbital? From n=2 upwards, how many p-orbitals does each shell contain? Therefore how many 'p' electrons can each shell contain?
Dumb-bell shape. Each shell contains 3 p-orbitals and therefore a maximum of 6p electrons.
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From n=3 upwards, how many d-orbitals does each shell contain? Therefore how many 'd' electrons can each shell contain?
Each shell contains 5 d-orbitals and therefore a maximum of 10d electrons
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From n=4 upwards how many f-orbitals does each shell contain? Therefore how many 'd' electrons can each shell contain?
Each shell contains 7 f-orbitals and therefore a maximum of 14f electrons
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How can electrons in orbitals be represented?
in boxes. Each box can contain up to two electrons with opposite spins to demonstrate the expected repul
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What is the maximum number of electrons each atomic orbital can hold?
Two
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What are the four different types of orbital?
s,p,d and f
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What shape is an s- orbital? From n=1 upwards, how many s-orbitals does each shell contain? Therefore how many 's' electrons can each shell contain?
Spherical shape. Each shell contains one s-orbital and therefore a maximum of 2s electrons.
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What shape is a p- orbital? From n=2 upwards, how many p-orbitals does each shell contain? Therefore how many 'p' electrons can each shell contain?
Dumb-bell shape. Each shell contains 3 p-orbitals and therefore a maximum of 6p electrons.
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From n=3 upwards, how many d-orbitals does each shell contain? Therefore how many 'd' electrons can each shell contain?
Each shell contains 5 d-orbitals and therefore a maximum of 10d electrons
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From n=4 upwards how many f-orbitals does each shell contain? Therefore how many 'd' electrons can each shell contain?
Each shell contains 7 f-orbitals and therefore a maximum of 14f electrons
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How can electrons in orbitals be represented?
in boxes. Each box can contain up to two electrons with opposite spins to demonstrate the expected repulsion of electrons within an orbital.
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What is the maximum number of electrons each atomic orbital can hold?
2
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What is the maximum number of electrons each atomic orbital can hold?
2
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What are the our different types of atomic orbital?
s,p,d and f
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What is the maximum number of electrons each atomic orbital can hold?
2
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What are the our different types of atomic orbital?
s,p,d and f
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What is the maximum number of electrons each atomic orbital can hold?
2
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What are the our different types of atomic orbital?
s,p,d and f
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What shape is an s orbital?
spherical
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What is the maximum number of electrons each atomic orbital can hold?
2
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What are the our different types of atomic orbital?
s,p,d and f
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What shape is an s orbital?
spherical
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What is the maximum number of electrons each atomic orbital can hold?
2
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What are the our different types of atomic orbital?
s,p,d and f
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What shape is an s orbital?
spherical
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From n=1 (energy level) upwards, how many s-orbitals does each shell contain? therefore what is the maximum number of 's' electrons can each shell contain?
1 s-orbital, therefore a maximum of 2s electons
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What is the shape of a p-orbital?
a 3D dumb-bell shape
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What is the maximum number of electrons each atomic orbital can hold?
2
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What are the our different types of atomic orbital?
s,p,d and f
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What shape is an s orbital?
spherical
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From n=1 (energy level) upwards, how many s-orbitals does each shell contain? therefore what is the maximum number of 's' electrons can each shell contain?
1 s-orbital, therefore a maximum of 2s electons
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What is the shape of a p-orbital?
a 3D dumb-bell shape
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What is the maximum number of electrons each atomic orbital can hold?
2
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What are the our different types of atomic orbital?
s,p,d and f
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What shape is an s orbital?
spherical
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From n=1 (energy level) upwards, how many s-orbitals does each shell contain? therefore what is the maximum number of 's' electrons can each shell contain?
1 s-orbital, therefore a maximum of 2s electons
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What is the shape of a p-orbital?
a 3D dumb-bell shape
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From n=2 upwards, how many p-orbitals does each shell contain? therefore what is the maximum number of 'p' electrons a shell can contain?
3 p-orbitals, therefore a maximum of 6p electrons
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What is the maximum number of electrons each atomic orbital can hold?
2
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What are the our different types of atomic orbital?
s,p,d and f
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What shape is an s orbital?
spherical
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From n=1 (energy level) upwards, how many s-orbitals does each shell contain? therefore what is the maximum number of 's' electrons can each shell contain?
1 s-orbital, therefore a maximum of 2s electons
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What is the shape of a p-orbital?
a 3D dumb-bell shape
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From n=2 upwards, how many p-orbitals does each shell contain? therefore what is the maximum number of 'p' electrons a shell can contain?
3 p-orbitals, therefore a maximum of 6p electrons
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What is the maximum number of electrons each atomic orbital can hold?
2
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What are the our different types of atomic orbital?
s,p,d and f
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What shape is an s orbital?
spherical
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From n=1 (energy level) upwards, how many s-orbitals does each shell contain? therefore what is the maximum number of 's' electrons can each shell contain?
1 s-orbital, therefore a maximum of 2s electons
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What is the shape of a p-orbital?
a 3D dumb-bell shape
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From n=2 upwards, how many p-orbitals does each shell contain? therefore what is the maximum number of 'p' electrons a shell can contain?
3 p-orbitals, therefore a maximum of 6p electrons
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From n=3 upwards, how many d orbitals does each shell contain? therefore what is the maximum number of electrons each shell can contain?
5 d-orbitals, therefore a maximum of 10d electrons
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What is the maximum number of electrons each atomic orbital can hold?
2
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What are the our different types of atomic orbital?
s,p,d and f
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What shape is an s orbital?
spherical
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From n=1 (energy level) upwards, how many s-orbitals does each shell contain? therefore what is the maximum number of 's' electrons can each shell contain?
1 s-orbital, therefore a maximum of 2s electons
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What is the shape of a p-orbital?
a 3D dumb-bell shape
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From n=2 upwards, how many p-orbitals does each shell contain? therefore what is the maximum number of 'p' electrons a shell can contain?
3 p-orbitals, therefore a maximum of 6p electrons
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From n=3 upwards, how many d orbitals does each shell contain? therefore what is the maximum number of electrons each shell can contain?
5 d-orbitals, therefore a maximum of 10d electrons
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What is the maximum number of electrons each atomic orbital can hold?
2
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What are the our different types of atomic orbital?
s,p,d and f
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What shape is an s orbital?
spherical
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From n=1 (energy level) upwards, how many s-orbitals does each shell contain? therefore what is the maximum number of 's' electrons can each shell contain?
1 s-orbital, therefore a maximum of 2s electons
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What is the shape of a p-orbital?
a 3D dumb-bell shape
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From n=2 upwards, how many p-orbitals does each shell contain? therefore what is the maximum number of 'p' electrons a shell can contain?
3 p-orbitals, therefore a maximum of 6 p electrons
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From n=3 upwards, how many d orbitals does each shell contain? therefore what is the maximum number of electrons each shell can contain?
5 d-orbitals, therefore a maximum of 10 d electrons
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From n=4 upwards, how many f orbitals does each shell contain? therefore what is the maximum number of of 'f' electrons can each shell contain?
7 f orbitals, therefore a maximum of 14 f electrons.
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What is the maximum number of electrons each atomic orbital can hold?
2
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What are the our different types of atomic orbital?
s,p,d and f
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What shape is an s orbital?
spherical
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From n=1 (energy level) upwards, how many s-orbitals does each shell contain? therefore what is the maximum number of 's' electrons can each shell contain?
1 s-orbital, therefore a maximum of 2 s electrons
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What is the shape of a p-orbital?
a 3D dumb-bell shape
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From n=2 upwards, how many p-orbitals does each shell contain? therefore what is the maximum number of 'p' electrons a shell can contain?
3 p-orbitals, therefore a maximum of 6 p electrons
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From n=3 upwards, how many d orbitals does each shell contain? therefore what is the maximum number of electrons each shell can contain?
5 d-orbitals, therefore a maximum of 10 d electrons
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From n=4 upwards, how many f orbitals does each shell contain? therefore what is the maximum number of of 'f' electrons can each shell contain?
7 f orbitals, therefore a maximum of 14 f electrons.
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Card 2

Front

What is a shell/energy level?

Back

a group of atomic orbitals with the same principal quantum number,n. Also known as the main energy level.

Card 3

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What is the principal quantum number, n?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What expression is used to find out how many electrons each shell can hold?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What do you call regions around the nucleus in which electrons are found?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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