Chemistry Mock Revision Cards

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What are the three states of matter?
Solids, Liquids and Gases.
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What do these depend on?
The material, temperature and pressure.
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Solids:
1) Strong forces of attraction between particles: holds them close together - fixed positions form a regular lattice arrangement. 2) Particles don't move position - keep in a definite shape and volume. 3) Particles vibrate, hotter = more vibration.
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Liquids:
1) weak force of attraction between particles - randomly arranged - free to move past each other. 2) Stick closely together - definite volume but not definite shape. 3) They flow. 4) Constantly moving in random motion. 5) Expand when heated.
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Gases:
1) Very weak force of attraction between particles - free to move - far apart. 2) Travel in straight lines. 3) No definite shape or volume. 4) Always fill a container. 5) Constantly moving in random motion 6) Expand when heated + pressure increases.
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In endothermic processes is the energy gained or lost?
Gained (Heat enters)
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In exothermic processes is the energy gained or lost?
Lost (Heat exits)
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What happens when a solid is heated?
It's particles gain energy.
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What does this do to the solid and it's particles?
It makes the particles vibrate more which weakens the forces that hold the solid together. This makes the solid expand.
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Melting =
When a solid reaches a certain temperature and the particles have enough energy to break free from their positions and make the solid turn into a liquid.
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Evaporating =
When a liquid reaches a certain temperature and the particles have enough energy to break their bonds and the liquid turns into a gas.
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Condensing =
When a gas drops to a certain temperature and the particles lose enough energy and cause the particles to become closer together and the gas becomes a liquid.
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Freezing =
When a liquid drops to a certain temperature and the particles lose enough energy and cause the particles to become closer together and the liquid becomes a solid.
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Subliming =
Where solid changes straight to a gas without changing to liquid or vice versa. This process is called sublimation.
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Give examples of materials which sublime.
Iodine, solid carbon dioxide (dry ice), graphite, ammonium chloride (NH4CI)
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DIffusion =
The gradual movement of particles from places where there is a high density of them to a lower density of them.
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Name 3 experiments that show diffusion.
(1) Potassium Manganate(VII) and water. (2) Ammonia and Hydrogen Chloride. (3) Bromine Gas and Air.
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Potassium Managnate(VII) and Water: Method:
If a crystal of purple manganate(VII) is placed in a beaker of water, the purple colour spreads throughout the whole beaker due to the continuous random motion of particles .
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Potassium Managnate(VII) and Water: Findings:
After 24 hours the colour would be uniformly spread throughout the beaker.
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Ammonia and Hydrogen: Method:
Soak a ball of cotton wool in aqueous ammonia and insert a few centimetres into the glass tube. Close the end with the rubber bung. At the same time, insert a cotton wool ball soaked in hydrochloric acid at the other end.
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Ammonia and Hydrogen: Findings:
Where the two vapours meet a ring of thick 'mist' forms. The ring will be closer to the HCl end because the particles of ammonia are lighter and smaller and therefore diffuse quicker.
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Bromine Gas and Air: Method:
Fill half a glass jar full of bromine gas, and the other half full of air - separate the gasses with a glass plate. When you remove the glass plate the bromine gas slowly diffuses through the air.
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Bromine Gas and Air: Findings:
The random motion of the particles means that the bromine will eventually diffuse right through the air.
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3 Facts about Nucleus' in atoms:
1) It contains protons and neutrons. 2) It has a positive charge because of the protons. 3) Almost the whole mass of the atom is concentrated in the nucleus.
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Electrons:
They're negatively charged. They have virtually no mass - 1/2000 Relative mass). Their charge is -1.
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Protons:
Heavy. Positively charged (Relative charge of +1). Relative mass of 1.
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Neutrons:
Heavy. Neutral (No relative charge). Relative mass of 1.
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Electrons and Protons:
The number of electrons always equals the number of protons in a neutral atom.
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Ions:
If some electrons are added or removed, the atom becomes charged and is then an ion.
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Mass Number:
Total of protons and neutrons.
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Atomic number:
Number of protons.
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Number of Neutrons =
Mass Number - Atomic Number
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Molecules:
Atoms joined together.
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Covalent Bonds:
a strong bond between two non-metal atoms. It consists of a shared pair of electrons. A covalent bond can be represented by a straight line or dot-and-cross diagram.
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Elements:
each of more than one hundred substances that cannot be chemically interconverted or broken down into simpler substances and are primary constituents of matter.
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Name the first 10 Elements in the periodic table.
Hydrogen, Helium, Lithium, Beryllium, Boron, Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Fluorine and Neon.
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Compounds:
A thing that is composed of two or more different elements that are chemically joined (bonded) together and are NOT easily separated into their original elements.
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Name 3 compounds:
Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Water (H2O) and Ethanol (C2H6O)
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Mixtures:
two or more substances which have been combined so that each substance retains its own chemical identity. Mixtures are easily separated.
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Name a mixture and what is in the mixture.
Air.(Contains mainly Nitrogen, Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide and Argon)
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Filtration:
Used to separate an insoluble solid from a liquid. Can be used in purification as well.
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Crystallisation:
Used to separate a soluble liquid from a solution.
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Crystallisation: Method:
Pour a solution into an evaporating dish. Slowly heat the solution. Some of the solvent will evaporate and the solution will be more concentrated. Stop heating when crystals form. Remove dish and leave in warm place. Dry the product.
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Simple Distillation:
Used for separating out a liquid from a solution.
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Fractional Distillation:
Used to separate a mixture of liquids.
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How to work out electron configurations: Example: Nitrogen.
The periodic table tells us that Nitrogen has 7 protons so it has 7 electrons too. The first shell has 2 electrons and the second has a max of 8. The Electronic Configuration must must be 2, 5.
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Ionic Bonding:
The transfer of electrons. (Losing or gaining to form charged particles.
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Atoms with one or two electrons on their outer shell want to get rid of those extra electrons.
Atoms with one or two less electrons on their outer shell want to gain extra electrons.
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Stable:
Full outer shell.
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What groups in the periodic table are most likely to form ions?
Groups 1 & 2 and 6 & 7.
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Why?
Groups 1&2 are metals and they lose electrons to form positive ions (CATIONS) and Groups 6&7 are non-metals and they gain electrons to form negative ions. (ANIONS)
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Ionic Compounds:
Where ions are held together in a lattice structure by ionic bonds.
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What type of structure are ions held together in?
Closely packed 3D lattice arrangements.
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How do the charges on the ions affect the strength of the ionic bonding?
A lattice of 2+ and 2- ions will be held together by stronger forces of attraction than a lattice of a 1+ and 1- ions.
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Give an example of a typical ionic structure.
Sodium Chloride.
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Sodium Chloride Lattice Structure:
(Picture of Sodium Chloride)
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Covalent Bonding:
A bond with a shared pair of electrons.
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Name 8 different covalent bonds.
Hydrogen(H2), Chlorine(Cl2), Hydrogen Chloride(HCl), Ammonia(NH3), Nitrogen(N2), Water(H2O), Oxygen(O2), Carbon Dioxide(C2O), Methane(CH4), Ethane(C2H6) and Ethene(C2H4).
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Name a triple bond.
Nitrogen(N2) N≡N
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Name a double bond.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) O=C=O
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Name 2 Giant Covalent Structures.
Diamond and Graphite.
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Diamond covalent structure.
(Picture of Diamond Structure)
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Graphite covalent structure.
(Picture of Graphite Structure)
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Balancing Equations:
Symbol equations need to be balanced. There must always be the same number of atoms on both sides.
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What is an Isotope?
Isotopes are atomic forms of the same element, which have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons.
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Do Isotopes of an element have the same chemical reactions if yes, then why?
Yes they do, because isotopes have the same number of valence electrons and so lose or gain the same number of electrons to have a full outer shell, therefore the same chemical reactions.
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Relative Formula Mass: (Mr)
Relative Atomic Masses of the atoms the formula contains added together.
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How to find Empirical formula:
List all the elements in the compound. Underneath write their masses or %. Divide each mass or % by the relative atomic mass of the element. Turn the numbers you get into a ratio. Put ratio in it's simplest form and tada: empirical formula.
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Molecular Formula:
The actual number of atoms of each element in a single molecule.
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Empirical Formula:
A compound in it's simplest formula. (The ratio of different elements in the compound)
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How to work out Molecular Formula:
(Find the mass of the empirical formula. Divide relative molecular mass by the mass of the empirical formula to find the amount of empirical units in the molecule. Times the empirical formula by the amount of empirical units.) = Molecular Formula.
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How to calculate masses in reactions:
Write down the balanced equation. Find Mr of the 2 bits you want and multiply them by the balancing numbers in the equation. Apply the rule: "Divide to get one, then multiply to get all."
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Percentage Yield =
Actual yield (grams) / Theoretical yield (grams) x 100
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Number of Moles =
Mass (grams) / Mr
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Volume (dm(cubed)) =
Moles x 24 OR Mass / Mr x 24
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Concentration (mol/dm(cubed)) =
Number of Moles / Volume (dm(cubed))
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Electric current:
Flow of electrons or ions.
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When can Ionic compounds conduct electricity?
When Molten or in solution.
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Metals and conductivity:
Metals are good conductors of both heat and electricity.
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Malleable:
They can be hammered or rolled into flat sheets. Most metals are Malleable.
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Group 1 Elements: Reactivity:
Group 1 elements get MORE REACTIVE as the ATOMIC NUMBER INCREASES and they ALL react with water.
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Why?
Because as you go down group 1, the attraction between the outermost electron and the nucleus is weaker so as the atoms get bigger, the outer electron is more easily lost and the metals become more reactive.
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The Halogens:
Group 7 Elements.
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Name 3 Halogens, their colour and their state.
Chlorine: Green Gas. Bromine: Red-Brown Liquid. Iodine: Dark Grey Solid.
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Name the properties of halogens.
As the atomic number increases the elements have a darker colour, a higher boiling point and change state. Also, the higher up the halogen is, the more reactive it is because the missing electron is nearer to the nucleus.
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Dissociation:
When a compound splits up into separate elements/ions.
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An Example of this?
Hydrogen Chloride Gas in Water.
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Displacement reactions:
More reactive Halogens will displace less ractive ones.
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What do Halogen Displaceent reactions involve?
A Transfer of Electrons.
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Reduction:
Gaining of electrons.
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Oxidation:
Loss of Electrons.
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Metal + Acid → ?
Salt + Hydrogen
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Metal oxide + Acid → ?
Salt + Water
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Metal carbonate + Acid → ?
Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide
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Reactivity Series:
Potassium, Sodium, Lithium, Calcium, Magnesium, Aluminium, Zinc, Iron, Copper, Silver, Gold.
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Reactivity Series: Acronym
Polly Sometimes Licks Children, Mainly After Zingy Indian Curry Sauce Gives (her wind) - courtesy of JN.
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How does this effect reactions?
More reactive metals displace less reactive metals.
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Proportions of Gases in the Atmosphere:
78% Nitrogen. 21% Oxygen, 1% Argon, 0.04% Carbon Dioxide.
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Investigating the proportion of Oxygen in the Atmosphere:
Heat an excess of Copper in a tube and pass air over it using two syringes, use markers on syringes to tell how much oxygen's been used up. Start with 100cm(cubed) and you'll end up with about 80 cm(cubed) meaning around 20% of air must be oxygen.
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Carbon Dioxide: In Life:
Carbon dioxide is used in fizzy drinks and fire extinguishers, is a greenhouse gas and an increase in carbon dioxide is linked to climate change.
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Flame tests: Lithium:
Burns with a crimson-red flame.
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Flame tests: Sodium:
Burns with a yellow-orange flame.
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Flame tests: Potassium:
Burns with a lilac flame.
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Flame tests: Calcium:
Burns with a brick-red flame.
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Precipitate Tests: Copper(II) - Cu2+:
Blue precipitate.
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Precipitate Tests: Iron(II) - Fe2+
Sludgy green precipitate.
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Precipitate Tests: Iron(III) - Fe3+
Reddish brown precipitate.
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Ammonium Compound + NaOH → ?
Gives off Ammonia Gas (NH3)
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Test for Carbonates:
Add dilute hydrochloric acid to a test sample. If carbonates are present then carbon dioxide will be released.
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Test for Sulfates:
Produce a white precipitate.
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Test for Carbon Dioxide:
Turns lime water cloudy
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Test for Chlorine:
Bleaches damp litmus paper.
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Test for Oxygen:
Relights a glowing splint.
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Test for Hydrogen:
Pop Test (Makes a squeak-like pop sound with a lighted splint)
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Test for Ammonia:
Turns damp red litmus paper blue.
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Test for Halides: Add dilute nitric acid (NHO3) followed by Silver Nitrate Solution (AgNO3):
Chloride ion gives a white precipitate of silver chloride, bromide ion give a cream precipitate of silver bromide, Iodide ion gives a yellow precipitate of silver iodide.
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Alkanes:
CnH2n+2)
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Homologous Series:
A group of compounds that can all be represented by the same general formula.
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What are the names of them?
Methane, Ethane, Propane, Butane, Pentane.
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Halogens react with alkanes to make...
Haloalkanes. But need UV light.
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Complete Combustion:
Alkane + Oxygen → Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy (Harmless)
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Incomplete Combustion: Smokey yellow flame and LESS energy.
Alkane + Oxygen → Carbon + Carbon Monoxide + Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy (NOT SAFE - HARMFUL)
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Alkenes:
CnH2n (DOUBLE BOND)
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What are their names?
Ethene, Propene, Butene.
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Halogens + Alkene → ?
Haloalkanes.
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Titrations are used to find...
Concentrations
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What is the Collision Theory?
The rate of a reaction depends on how often and how hard the reacting particles collide with each other.
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What are the 4 methods of speeding up the rate of reaction?
Higher Temperature, Higher Concentration, Larger Surface Area and Catalysts.
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What must always be supplied to break bonds?
Energy.
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What is an Exothermic Reaction?
A reaction which gives out energy to the surroundings, usually in the form of heat and usually shown by a rise in tmperature.
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What is an Endothermic Reaction?
A reaction which takes in energy from the surroundings, usually in the form of heat and usually shown by a fall in temperature.
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Enthalpy Change:
Change in Energy.
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How to calculate Enthalpy Change (ΔH):
Enthalpy Change (ΔH) = Total energy absorbed to break bonds - Total energy released to make bonds
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Reversible Reaction:
Where the products of the reaction can themselves react to produce the original reactants.
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Uses of Iron:
Wrought Iron is malleable so is used to make ornamental gates and railings, but iron is also mixed with other elements to make alloys like cast iron(cooking pans), steel(car bodies) and stainless steel (forks).
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Uses for Aluminium:
Drinks cans, bicycle frames and aeroplanes.
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What is crude oil?
High temperatures and pressured causing the buried remains of plants and animals.
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What products come out of distilling crude oil?
Bitumen, Fuel Oil, Diesel, Kerosene, Naphtha, Gasoline and Refinery Gases. (In that order.)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The material, temperature and pressure.

Back

What do these depend on?

Card 3

Front

1) Strong forces of attraction between particles: holds them close together - fixed positions form a regular lattice arrangement. 2) Particles don't move position - keep in a definite shape and volume. 3) Particles vibrate, hotter = more vibration.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

1) weak force of attraction between particles - randomly arranged - free to move past each other. 2) Stick closely together - definite volume but not definite shape. 3) They flow. 4) Constantly moving in random motion. 5) Expand when heated.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

1) Very weak force of attraction between particles - free to move - far apart. 2) Travel in straight lines. 3) No definite shape or volume. 4) Always fill a container. 5) Constantly moving in random motion 6) Expand when heated + pressure increases.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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