Chemistry F322 Key Terms

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: bluhaven
  • Created on: 01-06-15 14:17
Hydrocarbon
A compound consisting of hydrogen and carbon atoms only.
1 of 49
Saturated Hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon with single bonds only.
2 of 49
Unsaturated Hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon containing carbon-to-carbon multiple bonds.
3 of 49
Empirical Formula
The simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element present in a compound.
4 of 49
Molecular Formula
The actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule.
5 of 49
General Formula
The simplest algebraic formula formula of a member of a homologous series, e.g. Alkane = CnH2n+2
6 of 49
Structural Formula
The minimal detail that shows the arrangement of atoms in a molecule, e.g. Propane = CH3CH2CH3
7 of 49
Displayed Formula
The relative positioning of atoms and the bonds between them.
8 of 49
Skeletal Formula
The simplified organic formula, shown by removing hydrogen atoms from alkyl chains, leaving just a carbon skeleton and associated functional groups.
9 of 49
Homologous Series
A series of organic compounds having the same functional group but with each successive member differing by CH2.
10 of 49
Functional Group
A group of atoms responsible for the characteristic reactions of a compound.
11 of 49
Structural Isomers
Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulae.
12 of 49
Stereoisomers
Compounds with the same structural formula but with a different arrangement in space.
13 of 49
E/Z Isomerism
An example of stereoisomerism, in terms of restricted rotation about a double bond and the requirement for two different groups to be attached to each carbon atom of the C=C group.
14 of 49
cis-trans Isomerism
A special case of E/Z isomerism in which two of the substituent groups are the same.
15 of 49
Homolytic Fission
Forming two radicals.
16 of 49
Heterolytic Fission
Forming a cation and an anion.
17 of 49
Curly Arrow
The movement of an electron pair, showing either breaking or formation of a covalent bond.
18 of 49
Atom Economy
(Molecular mass of the desired products/ Sum of molecular masses of all products) x100
19 of 49
Cracking
The breaking down of long-chained saturated hydrocarbons to form a mixture of shorter-chained alkanes and alkenes.
20 of 49
Reforming
Converting aliphatic hydrocarbons into cyclic or aromatic hydrocarbons.
21 of 49
Substitution Reaction
A reaction in which an atom or group of atoms is replaced with a different atom or group of atoms.
22 of 49
Radical
A species with an unpaired electron.
23 of 49
pi-bond
The reactive part of a double bond formed above and below the plane of the bonded atoms by sideways overlap of p-orbitals.
24 of 49
Addition Reaction
A reaction in which a reactant is added to an unsaturated molecule to make a saturated molecule.
25 of 49
Electrophile
An electron pair acceptor.
26 of 49
Nucleophile
An electron pair donor.
27 of 49
Esterification
The reaction of an alcohol with a carboxylic acid to produce an ester and water.
28 of 49
Exothermic Reaction
A reaction in which the enthalpy of the products is smaller than the enthalpy of the reactants, resulting in heat loss to the surroundings (∆H -ve).
29 of 49
Endothermic Reaction
A reaction in which the enthalpy of the products is greater than the enthalpy of the reactants, resulting in heat being taken in from the surroudnings (∆H +ve).
30 of 49
Enthalpy, H
The heat content that is stored in a chemical system.
31 of 49
(Standard) Enthalpy Change of Combustion
The enthalpy change that takes place when one mole of a substance reacts completely with oxygen under standard conditions, all reactants and products being in their standard states.
32 of 49
(Standard) Enthalpy Change of Formation
The enthalpy change that takes place when one mole of a compound in its standard state is formed from its constituent elements in their standard states under standard conditions.
33 of 49
(Standard) Enthalpy Change of Reaction
The enthalpy change that accompanies a reaction in the molar quantities expressed in a chemical equation under standard conditions, all reactants and products being in their standard states.
34 of 49
Standard State
The physical state of a substance under the standard conditions of 100kPa (1 atmosphere) and 298 K (25°C).
35 of 49
Activation Energy
The minimum energy required to start a reaction by the breaking of bonds.
36 of 49
Standard Conditions
A pressure of 100 kPa (1 atmosphere), a stated temperature, usually 298 K (25°C), and a concentration of 1 mol dm-3 (for reactions with aqueous solutions).
37 of 49
Average Bond Enthalpy
The average enthalpy change that takes place when breaking by homolytic fission 1 mol of a given type of bond in the molecules of a gaseous species.
38 of 49
Hess' Law
If a reaction can take place by more than one route and the initial and final conditions are the same, the total enthalpy change is the same for each route.
39 of 49
Enthalpy Cycle
A diagram showing alternative routes between reactants and products that allows the indirect determination of an enthalpy change from other known enthalpy changes using Hess' law.
40 of 49
Enthalpy Profile Diagram
A diagram for a reaction to compare the enthalpy of the reactants with the enthalpy of the products.
41 of 49
Catalyst
A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being used up in the process.
42 of 49
Enzyme
A very efficient catalyst for biochemical reactions.
43 of 49
Boltzmann Distribution
The distribution of energies of molecules at a particular temperature, usually shown as a graph.
44 of 49
Dynamic Equilibrium
The equilibrium the exists in a closed system when the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction.
45 of 49
le Chatelier's Principle
When a system in dynamic equilibrium is subjected to a change, the position of equilibrium with shift to minimise the change.
46 of 49
Greenhouse Effect
The process in which the absorption and subsequent emission of infrared radiation by atmospheric gases warms the lower atmosphere and the planet's surface.
47 of 49
Global Warming
A gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earth's atmosphere generally attributed to the greenhouse effect caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide, CFCs, and other pollutants.
48 of 49
Climate Change
A change in global or regional climate patterns, in particular a change apparent from the mid to late 20th century onwards and attributed largely to the increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide produced by the use of fossil fuels.
49 of 49

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A hydrocarbon with single bonds only.

Back

Saturated Hydrocarbon

Card 3

Front

A hydrocarbon containing carbon-to-carbon multiple bonds.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element present in a compound.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Chemistry resources:

See all Chemistry resources »See all All F322 resources »