Chemistry end of year revision

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What is a polymer?
a large molecule made from many smaller molecules called monomers
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What happens in addition polymerisation?
monomers join together to make a saturated polymer
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What reacts with what to form a saturated compound?
bromine with an alkene.
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how to turn a monomer into a polymer?
you remove the double bond and add a single bond to both sides and then add brackets
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what happens when you add bromine water to an alkene?
It turns colourless
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What is thermal decomposition?
The heating of a compound to break into smaller compounds or elements
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What is distillation?
Sperating a chemical mixture based on the different boiling points
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What is the process of cracking?
converts a long chain alkane into a shorter more useful alkane or alkene.
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what happens when hydrogen is combusted?
a purple and white flame occur and it causes a loud bang
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What is the equation of complete combustion?
hydrogen+oxygen=Carbon dioxide+water
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Equation for incomplete combustion?
Hydrogen+oxygen- carbon+carbon monoxide + water
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Give the gases and their percentages in the atmosphere?
21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen, 0.93% argos, 0.035% carbon dioxide
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What does a catalytic converter do?
convert dangerous monoxides of nitrogen and carbon into nitrogen and less harmful carbon dioxide
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Name properties of perfumes?
non toxic, non irritable, evaporative, non reactive, insoluble and volatile
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how are esters made?
by reacting an alcohol with a carboxylic acid
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What is the equation for the production of esters?
alcohol+carboxylic acid-- ester+water acid
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what is the soulute?
The substance that dissolves.
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what is the solvent?
the liquid that does the dissolving
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what is the solution?
a mixture of the solute and solvent
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what is miscible and imiscible?
Miscible- liquids with similar intermelecular forces will mix, Imiscible- liquids with very different intermelecular forces do not mix.
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What is a colloid?
a mixture where particles of one substance are mixed and dispersed evenly with particles of another substance (THEY DO NOT DISSOLVE)
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Why is the structure of the earth so hard to study?
the crust is too thick to drill, you would need to use seismic waves or man made explosions and it is too hot under the crust
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what are thermochromic pigments?
pigments that change colour when the temperature changes
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what are phoscphorscent pigments?
absorb and store energy when light pulls on them
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name the type of stone that marble, limestone and granite are?
limestone- sedimentary, marble - metamorphic, granite- igneous
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put in order from softest to hardest, limestone marble and granite
softest- limestone medium - marble, hardest granite
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What is thermal decomposition?
when heat is used to break down a compound into two or more substances.
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What is reinforced concrete?
used a beam to which bends and stretches and puts it under tension which makes cracks occur.so it stops the concrete from spreading
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what is concrete and what is cement?
concrete is a mixture of water sand gravel and cement and cement is the powder used to create concrete
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What are the two different rates of recation?
top plan base and gas syringe
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what is the limiting reactant and reactant in excess?
Limiting reactant- the reactant that runs out first reactant in excess- the reactant left over
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what is the equation for rate of reaction?
volume or amount of product formed / time taken
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what are the five things that affect the rate of reaction?
temperature, pressure, concentration, surface area and a catalyst.
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what are batch and continous processes?
an industrial manufacturing process which a fixed amount of reactions are made into products the process stops and the products are removed, continous-new reactants are constantly fed in and products are removed.
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describe the process stages of a chemical being extracted from plants?
crush plant, add solvent, filter, purify by chromotography, evaporation of solvent, test purity
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what is the equation for percentage yield?
actual yield/ expected yield x 100
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what is the equation for atom economy
Mr of desired product/ total Mr products x 100
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What happens in addition polymerisation?

Back

monomers join together to make a saturated polymer

Card 3

Front

What reacts with what to form a saturated compound?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

how to turn a monomer into a polymer?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what happens when you add bromine water to an alkene?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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