Chemistry: Discovering Chemistry

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  • Created by: faholly21
  • Created on: 08-06-15 14:15
Actual Yield
The actual amount of product obtained from a chemical reaction.
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Alkali Metal
Element in Group 1
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Anion
Negatively Charged ion
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Aqueous Solution
Mixture formed when a substance is dissolved in water.
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Atom
The smallest neutral part of an element that can take part in reactions.
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Atomic number
Number of protons in the nucleus ( also the number of electrons in the shells)
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Barium Meal
Drink containing barium sulfate so that parts of the digestive system shows up on an Xray
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Boiling Point
Temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a gas
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By products
any products produced in a reaction in a addition to the required product
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Catalytic Converters
Device fitted to car exhausts with a thin layer of a transition metal catalyst on a honeycomb structure (large surface area). Speeds up reaction of carbon monoxide/unburnt petrol with oxygen to make carbon dioxide and water vapur.
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Cation
Positively charged ion
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Chromatogram
Piece of paper showing the results of carrying out chromatography on a substance
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Chromatography
Technique for separating the components of a mixture. Works because the substances move at different rates through a piece of paper soaked in solvent.
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Collision Theory
Theory of chemical reactions that describes how particles must collide with enough energy to react.
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Compound
Substance of two or more elements chemically joined together
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Compound Ion
Groups of atoms together w/ a positive or negative charge
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Concentration
Measure of how much solute is dissolved in a solvent. The more solute that is dissolved in a fixed volume, the higher concentration of the solution.
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Covalent Bond
Bond formed when a pair of electrons is shared between two atoms
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Delocalised electrons
Free electrons that can move around between ions in a metal or in the layers of graphite
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Diamond
A form of carbon that is very hard and doesn't conduct electricity. Used in cutting tools.
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Displacement reaction
When a more reactive substance displaces a less reactive substance from one of its compounds.
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Dissolve
Occurs when a solute splits up and mixes with a solvent to make a solution
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Dot and Cross Diagram
Way of showing electron structures in covalent substances using dots and crosses to show electrons from different atoms.
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Double Bond
When two bonds are joined by two bonds.
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Electrolysis
Process is which electrical energy from a d.c supply decomposes some componds
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Electron
Negatively charged subatomic particle found in shells around the nucleus of the atom.
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Electronic Configuration
Arrangement of electrons in shells around the nucleus of an atom
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Element
Substance which cannot be split up into simpler substances
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Empirical formula
Simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element in a compound
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Endothermic
Reaction that takes heat energy in, decreasing the temperature of the reaction mixture and its surroundings.
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Exothermic
Reaction that releases heat energy increasing the temperature of the reaction mixture and its surroundings.
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Filtration
The separation of undissolved solids from a liquid by filtering
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Flame test
An analytical test to find out which metal ion is present in a substance. Different metals produce different colours in a Bunsen Burner flame.
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Formula
Abbreviation for a substance using symbols with two or more atoms or ions
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Fraction
A component of a mixture which has been separated by fractional distillation
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Fractionating column
A long column used to separate a mixture of liquids into different fractions with different boiling points.Column is warmer at the top than the bottom
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Fractional distillation
Process by which a mixture of two or more liquids is separated using different boiling points
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Giant molecular Covalent substance
Substance held together by millions of atoms all held together by covalent bonds.
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Graphite
A form of carbon that is soft and conducts electricity. It is used as lubricant as the layers slip over each other easily
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Group
A column in the periodic table containing elements with similar properties
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Halide
A compound formed between a halogen and another element such as a metal or hydrogen
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Immiscible
Liquids that do not form a solution but separate into two layers.
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Inert
Does not react
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Insoluble
Substance that does not dissolve in a given solvent
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Ion
An atom/ group of atoms with an electrical charge. Become positively charged if they lose electrons and negatively charged ions if they gain electrons.
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Ionic bonds
Strong electrostatic force between oppositely charged ions
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Ionic Compound
Substance containing ions from two or more elements.
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Isotopes
Atoms of an element with the same number of protons and electrons but with different numbers of neutrons.
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Lattice Structure
Regular, grid like arrangement of particles such as ions
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Liquefy
Convert a substance into a liquid by heating/cooling
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Lubricant
A substance placed between two moving surfaces to reduce the friction between them.
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Malleable
Can be hammered into shape.
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Mass
Measure of the amount of material that there is in an object.
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Mass Number
The total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. Also known as the nucleon number.
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Melting point
Temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid
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Miscible
Liquids that completely mix together to form a solution
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Molecular formula
This shows the actual number of atoms of each element that combine to make a molecule of a compound
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Molecule
Two or more atoms joined together by covalent bonds
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Molten
Melted to form a liquid
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Neutron
A sub-atomic particle found in the nucleus of most atoms (electrically neutral)
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Noble Gases
Elements in group 0 of the periodic table
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Nucleon
The sub-atomic particles in the nucleus of an atom
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Nucleas
The positively charged centre of an atom
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Percentage by mass
Percentage of total mass for a specific element in a compound; found from the relative mass of the element in the compound divided by the relative formula mass and expressed as a percentage.
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Percentage Yield
The actual yield divided by the theoretical yield as a percentage
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Period
Row in the periodic table which the atomic number increases by one from one element to the next.
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Periodic Table
Chart in which the chemical elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number
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Precipitate
Insoluble product formed in a precipitation reaction
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Precipitation Reaction
Reaction in which an insoluble product is formed from soluble reactants
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Proton
Positively charged sub-atomic particle found in the nucleus of all atoms.
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Rate of a chemical reaction
The speed at which a chemical reaction takes place as shown by the change in the amount (or concentration) of the reactant (or product)
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Reactivity
How fast or how readily an element reacts
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Relative abundance
Number of objects of a particular kind in a sample shown as a percentage of the total number of objects in the sample.
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Relative atomic mass
The mean mass of an atom relative to the mass of an atom of carbon-12 which is assigned to a mass of 12.
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Relative Charge
The electrical charge of a subatomic particle compared to the electrical charge of a proton.
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Relative Formula Mass
The sum of the relative atomic masses of all atoms in a formula
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Relative Mass
Mass of subatomic particle compared to the mass of a proton
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R f value
Ratio of distance travelled by a solute on a chromatogram (measured from the centre of the spot) compared to the distance travelled by a solvent under the same conditions.
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Salt
Compound formed by neutralisation of an acid by a base. First part of the name comes from the metal in the metal oxide, hydroxide or carbonate. Second part of the name comes from the acid
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Separating Funnel
Funnel with a tap at the bottom that is used for separating immiscible liquids
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Shell
Space around a nucleus that can be occupied by electrons usually drawn as a circle
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Simple Molecular Covalent Substance
Substance made of individual small molecules, with strong covalent bonds holding the atoms together in the molecules but only weak forces between neighbouring molecules
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Solubility
A measure of the amount of substance that will dissolve in a certain volume of solvent
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Soluble
Substance that dissolves in a given solvent
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Solution
Clear mixture that forms when a solute dissolves in a given solvent
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Solvent
Liquid that dissolves the Solute . Solute + Solvent-> Solution
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Solute
Solid/Liquid that dissolves in a given solvent to form a solution
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Spectroscopy
Analysis of the light on a spectrum. E.g wavelength of visible light emitted by atoms in flame tests)
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State Symbol
Letter or letters to show the state of a substance (e.g g for gas)
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Sub-atomic particle
A particle that is smaller than an atom such as a proton neutron or electron
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Theoretical Yield
The maximum calculated amount of a product that could be formed from a product that could be formed from a given amount of reactants
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Tracer
A radioactive substance that is deliberately injected into the body or into moving water. Allows the movement of the substance to be followed by detecting the ionising radiation emitted.
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Transition Metals
Metals in the central block of the periodic table
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Waste product
By products that have no uses
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Yield
The amount of product formed in a reaction
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Element in Group 1

Back

Alkali Metal

Card 3

Front

Negatively Charged ion

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Mixture formed when a substance is dissolved in water.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The smallest neutral part of an element that can take part in reactions.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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