Chemistry Defintions

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atomic orbital
A region within an atom that can hold up to two electrons, with opposite spins.
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atomic (proton) number
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
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electron configuration
The arrangement of electrons in an atom.
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electron shielding
The repulsion between electrons in different inner shells. Shielding reduces the net attractive force from the positive nucleus on the outer-shell electrons.
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giant covalent lattice
A three-dimensional structure of atoms, bonded together by strong covalent bonds.
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giant ionic lattice
A three-dimensional structure of oppositely charged ions, bonded together by strong ionic bonds.
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giant metallic lattice
A three-dimensional structure of positive ions and delocalised electrons, bonded together by strong metallic bonds.
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group
A vertical column in the Periodic Table. Elements in a group have similar chemical properties and their atoms have the same number of outer shell electrons.
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ion
A positively or negatively charge atom or (covalently bonded) group of atoms (a molecular ion).
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(first) ionisation energy
The energy required to remove one electron from each atom in one mole of gaseous atoms to form one mole of gaseous 1+ ions.
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(successive) ionisation energy
A measure of the energy required to remove each electron in turn, e.g. the second ionisation energy is the energy required to remove one electron from each ion in one mole of gaseous 1+ ions to form one mole of gaseous 2+ ions.
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isotopes
Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons and different masses.
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mass (nucleon) number
The number of particles (protons and neutrons) in the nucleus.
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metallic bond
The electrostatic attraction between positive metal ions and delocalised electrons.
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molecular ion, M+
The positive ion formed in mass spectrometry when a molecule loses an electron.
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period
A horizontal row of elements in the Periodic Table. Elements show trends in properties across a period.
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periodicity
A regular periodic variation of properties of elements with atomic number and position in the Periodic Table.
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principal quantum number, n
A number representing the relative overall energy of each orbital, which increases with distance from the nucleus. The sets of orbitals with the same n value are referred to as electron shells or energy levels.
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shell
A group of atomic orbitals with the same principal quantum number, n. Also known as a main energy level.
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sub-shell
A group of the same type of atomic orbitals (s, p, d or f) within a shell.
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volatility
The ease that a liquid turns into a gas. Volatility increases as boiling point decreases.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.

Back

atomic (proton) number

Card 3

Front

The arrangement of electrons in an atom.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The repulsion between electrons in different inner shells. Shielding reduces the net attractive force from the positive nucleus on the outer-shell electrons.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A three-dimensional structure of atoms, bonded together by strong covalent bonds.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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