Chemistry definitions unit 2 module 1

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  • Created by: sophiee96
  • Created on: 08-10-13 16:07
Rate of reaction
The change in concentration of reactant or product per unit time
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Initial rate of reaction?
The change in concentration of a reactant, or product, per unit time at the start of the reaction when t=0
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Orders with respect to a reactant?
The power to which the concentration of the reactant is raised in the equation
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Rate constant, k?
The constant that links the rate of reaction with the concentrations of the reactants raised to the powers of their orders in the rate equation
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Half-life of a reactant?
The time taken for the concentration of a reactant to reduce by half
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Rate determining step?
The slowest step in the reaction mechanism of a multi-step reaction
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Reaction mechanism?
A series of steps that, together, make up the overall reaction
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Intermediate?
A species formed in one step of a multi-step reaction that is used up in a subsequent step, and is not seen as either a reactant or a product of the overall equation
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Dynamic equilibrium?
Exists in a closed system when the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate for reverse reaction
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Homogeneous equlibrium?
An equilibrium in which all the species making up the reactant sand products are in the same physical state
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Heterogeneous equilibrium?
An equilibrium In which species making up the reactants and products are in different physical states
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Neutralisation?
A chemical reaction in which an acid and a base react to produce a salt and water
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Acid-base pair
A pair of two species that transform into each other by gain or loss of a proton
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pH = ?
-log[H+(aq)]
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[H+(aq)] =
10^pH
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A strong acid?
An acid that completely dissociates in solution
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A weak acid?
An acid that partially dissociates in solution
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What is Ka?
The acid dissociation constant
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pKa = ?
-log10Ka
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For a strong acid, HA?
[H+(aq)] = [HA(aq)]
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What is Kw?
The ionic product of water
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Kw = ?
[H+(aq)][OH-(aq)]
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Buffer solution?
A mixture that minimises pH changes on addition go small amounts of acid or base
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Equivalence point?
The point in a titration at which the volume of one solution has reacted exactly with the volume of the second solution
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End point?
The point in a titration at which there are equal concentrations of the weak acid and conjugate base forms of the indicator
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The standard enthalpy change of neutralisation?
The energy change that accompanies the neutralisation of an aqueous acid by an aqueous base to form one mole of water under standard conditions
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Initial rate of reaction?

Back

The change in concentration of a reactant, or product, per unit time at the start of the reaction when t=0

Card 3

Front

Orders with respect to a reactant?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Rate constant, k?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Half-life of a reactant?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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