chemistry definitions qs

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  • Created by: wills007
  • Created on: 23-04-14 12:52
dynamic equilibruim
closed system, concentrations of reactants and products are constant, forwards and backwards reactions are equal
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activation enthalpy
minimum energy needed to produce successful collision
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species with an unpaired electron
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high atom economy means...
less waste products
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the more electrons present in a molecule/atom the more...
instantaneous dipole - induced dipole attraction is present
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is reducing agent it gives electrons to another substance and becomes oxidised
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Oxidation Is Loss Reduction Is Gained
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is an oxidising agent it removes electrons from another substance and becomes reduced
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the ability of an atom to attract electrons from within a covalent bond
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Halogen displacement
more powerfully oxidising halogen will displace a less powerfully oxidising halogen from a solution of its salt
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strength of oxidising agent
1, fluorine (high) 2.chlorine 3.bromine 4.iodine (low)
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chemical species with a lone pair of electrons that are available to form covalent bonds
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E - isomer
same groups are across the double bond
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Z - isomer
same groups are both above or both below the double bond
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Primary alcohols are oxidised to...
aldehydes and then carboxylic acids
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secondary alcohols are oxdised to....
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primary alcohol
carbon with OH- attached to only one alkyl group
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secondary alcohol
carbon with OH- attached to two alkyl groups
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tertiary alcohol
carbon with OH- attached to three alkyl groups
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test for double bonds with bromine water
solution will go orange/brown to colourless
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how is ozone destroyed?
CFC's broke down by UV radiations which causes chlorine radicals, the free radicals are catalysts, as there react with ozone to form an intermediate and O2.
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free radicals are produced
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Free radicals are used up and created in a chain reaction
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Free radicals join to make a stable moleculeHE
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Heterolytic fission
two different subsances are formed, +ve cation and -ve anion
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homolytic fission
two electrically uncharged radicals are formed
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sun's main radiations
Ultra Violet, Infra-Red, Visible Light
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concentration - equilibria
increase of concentration of reactant, shifts to the right. increase of concentration of product, shifts to the left. decreasing has the opposite effects
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pressure - equilibria
icreasing pressure shifts the equilibrium to the side with fewest gases (reduces the pressure) decreasing the pressure shift the equilibrium to side with most gases (raises the pressure)
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temperature - equlilbria
increasing temp (adding heat) equilibrium shifts to endothermic direction. decreasing (removes heat) equilibrium shifts to the exothermic direction.
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ROR - increasing concentration
particles closer together more likely to collide with on another therefore more collisions and more chances to react
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ROR - increasing pressure
particles closer together, vibrate more causing more collisions and therefore more chances to react
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ROR - increasing surface area
larger surface area means there is more chance for the particles reacting, smaller the particle size the larger the surface area the quicker the reaction
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ROR - catalyst
lower the activation enthalpy
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ROR - increasing temperature
particles gain more energy making them vibrate more cause there to be more collision makes the reaction quicker
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activation enthalpy


minimum energy needed to produce successful collision

Card 3




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Card 4


high atom economy means...


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Card 5


the more electrons present in a molecule/atom the more...


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