Chemistry Definitions: F322, Module 1

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Hydrocarbon
Organic compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen only
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Saturated Hydrocarbon
Contains single bonds only
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Unsaturated Hydrocarbon
Contains carbon-carbon multiple bonds (double bonds)
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Aliphatic Hydrocarbon
Contains carbon atoms joined together in straight or branched chains
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Alicyclic Hydrocarbon
Contains carbon atoms joined together in a ring structure
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Functional Group
The part of the organic molecule responsible for its chemical reactions
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Homologous Series
A series of organic compounds with the same functional group but with each successive member differing by CH2
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Alkane
The homologous series with the general formula C[n]H2[n+2]
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Nomenclature
A system of naming compounds
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Alkyl Group
An alkane with a hydrogen atom removed, often shown as 'R'
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General Formula
The simplest algebraic formula of a member of a homologous series
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Displayed formula
Shows the relative positioning of atoms in a molecule and the bonds between them
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Structural Formula
Shows the minimal detail for the arrangement of atoms in a molecule
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Skeletal Formula
A simplified organic formula, with hydrogen atoms removed from alkyl chains, leaving just a carbon skeleton and functional groups
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Structural Isomers
Molecules with the same molecular formula but with different structural arrangements of atoms
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Stereoisomers
Compounds with the same structural formula, but with a different arrangement of the atoms in space
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E/Z Isomerism
Type of stereoisomerism in which different groups attached to each carbon of a C=C bond may be arranged differently in space due to the restricted rotation of the double bond
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cis-trans Isomerism
Special type of E/Z isomerism in which there is a non-hydrogen group and hydrogen on each C of a C=C bond. 'cis' (Z), atoms are on the same side. 'trans' (E), atoms are on different sides
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Homolytic Fission
The breaking of a covalent bond, with one of the bonded electrons going to each atom, forming two radicals. The two species are of the SAME type
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Heterolytic Fission
The breaking of a covalent bond, with both of the bonded electrons going to one of the atoms, forming a cation and an anion. The two species are DIFFERENT types
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Radical
Species with an unpaired electron
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Nucleophile
An atom (or group of atoms) that is attracted to an electron deficient centre or atom, where it donates a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
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Electrophile
An atom (or group of atoms) that is attracted to an electron rich centre or atom, where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
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Addition Reaction
Where a reactant is added to an unsaturated molecule to make a saturated molecule. 2 reactants --> 1 product
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Substitution Reaction
Where an atom (or group of atoms) is replaced with a different atom or group of atoms. 2 reactants ---> 2 products
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Elimination Reaction
Refers to the removal of a molecule from a saturated molecule to make an unsaturated molecule. 1 reactant ---> 2 products
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Fractional Distilliation
The separation of the components in a liquid mixture into fractions which differ in boiling point by means of distilliation
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Cracking
Refers to the breaking down of long chained saturated hydrocarbons to form a mixture of shorter chained alkanes and alkenes
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Catalyst
A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being used up in the process
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Radical Substitution
A type of substitution reaction in which a radical replaces a different atom or group of atoms
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Mechanism
Sequence of steps showing the path taken by electrons in a reaction
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Initiation
The first step in a radical substitution in which the free radicals are generated by UV radiation
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Propagation
Two repeated steps in radical substitution that build up the products in a chain reaction
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Termination
The step at the end of radical substitution when two radicals combine to form a molecule
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Pi-bond (π)
The reactive part of a double bond formed above and below the plane of the bonded atoms by sideways overlap of p-orbitals
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Electrophilic Addition
A type of addition reaction in which an electrophile is attracted to an electron rich centre or atom and accepts a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond
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Carbocation
An organic ion in which a carbon atom has a positive charge
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Curly Arrow
A symbol used in a reaction mechanism to show the movement of an electron pair in the breaking or formation of a covalent bond
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Polymer
Long molecular chain built up from monomer units
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Monomer
Small molecule that combines with many other monomers to form a polymer
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Addition Polymerisation
The process in which unsaturated alkenes add on to a growing polymer chain one at a time, to form a long saturated molecular chain
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Addition Polymer
Long molecular chain, formed by repeated addition reactions of many unsaturated alkene monomers
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Repeat Unit
Specific arrangement of atoms that occurs in the structure over and over again
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Biodegradable Material
A material that is broken down naturally in the environment by living organisms
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Contains single bonds only

Back

Saturated Hydrocarbon

Card 3

Front

Contains carbon-carbon multiple bonds (double bonds)

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Contains carbon atoms joined together in straight or branched chains

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Contains carbon atoms joined together in a ring structure

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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