Chemistry Definitions: F321, Module 2

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First Ionisation Energy
(of an element) The energy required to remove one electron from each atom in one mole of gaseous atoms to form one mole of gaseous 1+ ions
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Electron Shielding
The repulsion between electrons in different inner shells - it reduces the net attractive force from the +ve nucleus on the outer shell electrons
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Successive Ionisation Energy
A measure of the energy required to remove each electron in turn
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Shell
Group of atomic orbitals with the same principal quantum number
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Principal Quantum Number
A number representing the relative overall energy of each orbital, which increases with distance from the nucleus
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Atomic Orbital
Region within an atom that can hold up to two electrons, with opposite spins
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Sub-shell
A group of the same type of atomic orbitals (s, p, d or f) within a shell
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Electron Configuration
The arrangement of electrons in an atom
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Compound
Substance formed from two or more chemically bonded elements in a fixed ratio
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Ionic Bond
Electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
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Giant Ionic Lattice
3D structure of oppositely charged ions, held together by strong ionic bonds
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Group
Vertical column in the Periodic Table. Elements in the same group have similar chemical properties and the same number of outer-shell electrons
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Covalent Bond
Bond formed by a shared pair of electrons
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Lone pair
An outer-shell pair of electrons that is not involved in chemical bonding
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Dative (or coordinate) covalent
A shared pair of electrons which has been provided by one of the bonding atoms only
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Electronegativity
A measure of the attraction of a bonded atom for the pair of electrons in a covalent bond
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Permanent Dipole
A small charge difference across a bond that results from a difference in electronegativities
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Polar Covalent Bond
Has a permanent dipole
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Polar Molecule
Has an overall dipole
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Intermolecular Force
An attractive force between neighbouring molecules
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Permanent Dipole-Dipole Force
A weak attractive force between permanent dipoles in neighbouring polar molecules
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van der Waals' Forces
Attractive forces between induced dipoles in neighbouring molecules
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Hydrogen Bond
Strong dipole-dipole attraction between an electron deficient hydrogen atom on one molecule and a lone pair on a highly electronegative atom on a different molecule
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Metallic Bonding
The electrostatic attraction between +ve metal ions and delocalised electrons
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Delocalised Electrons
Shared between more than two atoms
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Giant Metallic Lattice
3D structure of +ve ions and delocalised electrons, bonded by strong metallic bonds
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Simple Molecular Lattice
3D structure of molecules, bonded by weak intermolecular forces
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Giant Covalent Lattice
3D structure of atoms, bonded by strong covalent bonds
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The repulsion between electrons in different inner shells - it reduces the net attractive force from the +ve nucleus on the outer shell electrons

Back

Electron Shielding

Card 3

Front

A measure of the energy required to remove each electron in turn

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Group of atomic orbitals with the same principal quantum number

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A number representing the relative overall energy of each orbital, which increases with distance from the nucleus

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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