Chemistry Definitions

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alicyclic hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in a ring structure.
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aliphatic hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in straight or branched chains.
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alkanes
The homologous series with the general formula: CnH2n+2.
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alkyl group
An alkane with a hydrogen atom removed, e.g. CH3, C2H5; alkyl groups are often shown as ‘R’.
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dehydration
An elimination reaction in which water is removed from a saturated molecule to make an unsaturated molecule.
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displayed formula
A formula showing the relative positioning of all the atoms in a molecule and the bonds between them.
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elimination reaction
The removal of a molecule from a saturated molecule to make an unsaturated molecule.
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empirical formula
The simplest whole-number ratio of atoms of each element present in a compound.
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esterification
The reaction of an alcohol with a carboxylic acid to produce an ester and water.
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functional group
The part of the organic molecule responsible for its chemical reactions.
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general formula
The simplest algebraic formula of a member of a homologous series. For example, the general formula of the alkanes is CnH2n+2.
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hydrocarbon
A compound of hydrogen and carbon only.
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nomenclature
A system of naming compounds.
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reflux
The continual boiling and condensing of a reaction mixture to ensure that the reaction takes place without the contents of the flask boiling dry.
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saturated hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon with single bonds only.
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skeletal formula
A simplified organic formula, with hydrogen atoms removed from alkyl chains, leaving just a carbon skeleton and associated functional groups.
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structural formula
A formula showing the minimal detail for the arrangement of atoms in a molecule.
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structural isomers
Molecules with the same molecular formula but with different structural arrangements of atoms.
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unsaturated hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon containing carbon-to-carbon multiple bonds.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in straight or branched chains.

Back

aliphatic hydrocarbon

Card 3

Front

The homologous series with the general formula: CnH2n+2.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

An alkane with a hydrogen atom removed, e.g. CH3, C2H5; alkyl groups are often shown as ‘R’.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

An elimination reaction in which water is removed from a saturated molecule to make an unsaturated molecule.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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