Chemistry definitions

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1st ionisation energy
The energy to remove one electron from each atom in one mole of gaseous atoms to form one mole of gaseous 1+ ions
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Acid
A species that is a proton donor
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Alkali
A type of base that dissolves in water forming hydroxide ions
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Alicyclic
Simple cyclical carbon chain
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Aliphatic
Simple carbon chain
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Amount of substance
The quantity whose unit is the mole. Chemists use amount of substance as a means of counting atoms
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Average bond enthalpy
The average enthalpy change that takes place when breaking by homolytic fission 1 mol of a given bond type in the molecules of a gaseous species
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Avogadro constant
The number of atoms per mole of a carbon-12 isotope (6.02x10^23)
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Base
A species that is a proton accepter
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Bond entalpy
The enthalpy change that takes place when breaking by homolytic fission 1 mol of a given bond type in the molecules of a gaseous species
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Cis/trans isomerism
A special type of E/Z isomerism in which there is a non-hydrogen group and hydrogen on each side of the C=C double bond: the cis isomer has the H atoms on each carbon on the same side; the trans isomer has the H atoms on different sides
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Dative covalent bond
A shared pair of electrons which has been provided by one of the bonding atoms only; also called a coordinate bond
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Dynamic equilibrium
The equilibrium that exists in a closed system where the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the backward reaction
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E/Z isomerism
A type of stereo-isomerism in which different groups attached to each carbon of a C=C double bond may be arranged differently in space due to the restricted rotation of the bond
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Electronegativity
A measure of the attraction of a bonded atom to the pair of electrons in a covalent bond
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Electrophile
An atom (or groups of atoms) that is attracted to an electron-rich centre or atom, where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond.
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Enthalpy change of combustion
The enthalpy change that takes place when one mole of substance is reacted completely with oxygen under standard conditions and the reactants in their standard states
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Enthalpy change of formation
The enthalpy change which takes place when one mole of a compound in its standard state is formed from its constituent elements in their standard states under standard conditions
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Enthalpy change of reaction
The enthalpy change that accompanies a reaction in the molar quantities in a chemical equation under standard conditions, all reactants and products being in their standard states
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Functional group
The part of an organic compound responsible for its chemical reactions
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Giant covalent lattice
A three dimensional structure of atoms, bonded together by strong covalent bonds
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Giant ionic lattice
A three dimensional structure of oppositely charged ions, bonded together by strong ionic bonds
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Giant metallic lattice
A three dimensional structure of positive ions and delocalised electrons, bonded together by strong metallic bonds
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Mole
The amount of any substance containing as many particles as there are atoms in 12g of carbon 12 isotope
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Nucleophile
An atom (or group of atoms) that is attracted to an electron defficient centre or atom, where it donates a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
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Permanent dipole
A small charge difference across a bond resulting from a difference in the electronegativities of the bonded atoms
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Permanent dipole-dipole force
An attractive force between permanent dipoles in neighbouring polar molecules
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Radical
A species with an unpaired electron
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Relative atomic mass
The weighted mean mass of an atom of an element when compared to 1/12 the mass of a carbon 12 isotope
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Relative formula mass
The weighted mean mass of an atom of a formula unit when compared to 1/12 the mass of a carbon 12 isotope
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Relative isotopic mass
The mass of an atom of an isotope when compared to 1/12 the mass of a carbon 12 isotope
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Molecular mass
The weighted mean mass of a molecule when compared to 1/12 the mass of a carbon 12 isotope
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Salt
A chemical compound formed from an acid, when a H+ ion from the acid has been replaced by a metal ion or another positive ion.
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Stereoisomers
Compounds with the same structural formula but with a different arrangement of atoms in space
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Van Der Waal's forces
Very weak attractive forces between induced dipoles in neighbouring molecules
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Water crystallisation
Water molecules which form an essential part of the crystalline structure of a compound
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Card 2

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A species that is a proton donor

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Acid

Card 3

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A type of base that dissolves in water forming hydroxide ions

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Card 4

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Simple cyclical carbon chain

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Card 5

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Simple carbon chain

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